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The imprint of exoplanet formation history on observable present-day spectra of hot Jupiters

By SpaceRef Editor
September 13, 2016
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Christoph Mordasini, Roy van Boekel, Paul Mollière, Thomas Henning, Björn Benneke
(Submitted on 10 Sep 2016)

The composition of a planet’s atmosphere is determined by its formation, evolution, and present-day insolation. A planet’s spectrum therefore may hold clues on its origins. We present a “chain” of models, linking the formation of a planet to its observable present-day spectrum. The chain links include (1) the planet’s formation and migration, (2) its long-term thermodynamic evolution, (3) a variety of disk chemistry models, (4) a non-gray atmospheric model, and (5) a radiometric model to obtain simulated spectroscopic observations with JWST and ARIEL. In our standard chemistry model the inner disk is depleted in refractory carbon as in the Solar System and in white dwarfs polluted by extrasolar planetesimals. Our main findings are: (1) Envelope enrichment by planetesimal impacts during formation dominates the final planetary atmospheric composition of hot Jupiters. We investigate two, under this finding, prototypical formation pathways: a formation inside or outside the water iceline, called “dry” and “wet” planets, respectively. (2) Both the “dry” and “wet” planets are oxygen-rich (C/O<1) due to the oxygen-rich nature of the solid building blocks. The “dry” planet’s C/O ratio is <0.2 for standard carbon depletion, while the “wet” planet has typical C/O values between 0.1 and 0.5 depending mainly on the clathrate formation efficiency. Only non-standard disk chemistries without carbon depletion lead to carbon-rich C/O ratios >1 for the “dry” planet. (3) While we consistently find C/O ratios <1, they still vary significantly. To link a formation history to a specific C/O, a better understanding of the disk chemistry is thus needed.

Comments: 32 pages, 18 figures. Accepted for publication in ApJ
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)
Cite as: arXiv:1609.03019 [astro-ph.EP] (or arXiv:1609.03019v1 [astro-ph.EP] for this version)
Submission history
From: Christoph Mordasini
[v1] Sat, 10 Sep 2016 09:44:34 GMT (1847kb,D) 

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