Status Report

Revised Masses and Densities of the Planets around Kepler-10

By SpaceRef Editor
January 26, 2016
Filed under , , ,

Lauren M. Weiss, Leslie A. Rogers, Howard T. Isaacson, Eric Agol, Geoffrey W. Marcy, Jason F. Rowe, David Kipping, Benjamin J. Fulton, Jack J. Lissauer, Andrew W. Howard, Daniel Fabrycky
(Submitted on 22 Jan 2016)

Determining which small exoplanets have stony-iron compositions is necessary for quantifying the occurrence of such planets and for understanding the physics of planet formation. Kepler-10 hosts the stony-iron world Kepler-10b (K10b), and also contains what has been reported to be the largest solid silicate-ice planet, Kepler-10c (K10c). Using 220 radial velocities (RVs), including 72 precise RVs from Keck-HIRES of which 20 are new from 2014-2015, and 17 quarters of Kepler photometry, we obtain the most complete picture of the Kepler-10 system to date. We find that K10b (Rp=1.47 Re) has mass 3.72±0.42 Me and density 6.46±0.73 g/cc. Modeling the interior of K10b as an iron core overlaid with a silicate mantle, we find that the iron core constitutes 0.17±0.11 of the planet mass. For K10c (Rp=2.35 Re) we measure Mp=13.98±1.79 Me and ρ=5.94±0.76 g/cc, significantly lower than the mass computed in Dumusque et al. (2014, 17.2±1.9 Me). Internal compositional modeling reveals that at least 10% of the radius of Kepler-10c is a volatile envelope composed of hydrogen-helium (0.2% of the mass, 16% of the radius) or super-ionic water (28% of the mass, 29% of the radius). Analysis of only HIRES data yields a higher mass for K10b and a lower mass for K10c than does analysis of the HARPS-N data alone, with the mass estimates for K10c formally inconsistent by 3σ. Splitting the RVs from each instrument leads to inconsistent measurements for the mass of planet c in each data set. This suggests that time-correlated noise is present and that the uncertainties in the planet masses (especially K10c) exceed our formal estimates. Transit timing variations (TTVs) of K10c indicate the likely presence of a third planet in the system, KOI-72.X. The TTVs and RVs are consistent with KOI-72.X having an orbital period of 24, 71, or 101 days, and a mass from 1-7 Me.

Comments: 22 pages, 20 figures, accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)
Cite as: arXiv:1601.06168 [astro-ph.EP] (or arXiv:1601.06168v1 [astro-ph.EP] for this version)
Submission history
From: Lauren Weiss
[v1] Fri, 22 Jan 2016 21:00:07 GMT (9594kb,D)

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