Status Report

NASA ISS On-Orbit Status 26 June 2012

By SpaceRef Editor
June 26, 2012
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NASA ISS On-Orbit Status 26 June 2012
NASA ISS On-Orbit Status 26 June 2012

ISS On-Orbit Status 06/26/12

All ISS systems continue to function nominally, except those noted previously or below.

After wakeup, Oleg Kononenko performed the routine inspection of the SM (Service Module) PSS Caution & Warning panel as part of regular Daily Morning Inspection.

Before breakfast, CDR Kononenko, FE-1 Padalka, FE-2 Revin & FE-5 Kuipers completed a session each with the Russian crew health monitoring program’s medical assessment MO-9/Biochemical Urinalysis. Involving visual urine assessment, MO-9 is one of 4 Russian crew health status checkups currently being conducted (the other three: MO-3 (Physical Fitness Evaluation), MO-7 (Calf Volume Measurement) & MO-8 (Body Mass Measurement). [MO-9 is conducted every 30 days (and also before and after EVAs) and is one of five nominal Russian medical tests adopted by NASA for U.S. crewmembers for IMG PHS (Integrated Medical Group/Periodic Health Status) evaluation as part of the “PHS/Without Blood Labs” exam, also conducted today. The analysis uses the sophisticated in-vitro diagnostic apparatus Urolux developed originally by Boehringer (Mannheim/Germany) for the Mir program. Afterwards, the data are entered in the MEC (Medical Equipment Computer)’s special IFEP software (In-Flight Examination Program).]

First thing in post-sleep, prior to eating, drinking & brushing teeth, FE-5 Kuipers & FE-6 Pettit each performed liquid saliva collection (Day 2) of their 2nd INTEGRATED IMMUNE onboard session. Don took documentary photography. The collections are made every other day for six days. [INTEGRATED IMMUNE (Validating Procedures for Monitoring Crew member Immune Function) samples & analyzes participant’s blood, urine, and saliva before, during and after flight for changes related to functions like bone metabolism, oxidative damage and immune function to develop and validate an immune monitoring strategy consistent with operational flight requirements and constraints. The strategy uses both long and short duration crewmembers as study subjects. The saliva is collected in two forms, dry and liquid. The dry samples are collected at intervals during the collection day using a specialized book that contains filter paper. The liquid saliva collections require that the crewmembers soak a piece of cotton inside their mouths and place it in a salivette bag; there are four of the liquid collections during docked operations. The on-orbit blood samples are collected right before undocking and returned to the ground so that analysis can occur with 48 hours of the sampling. This allows assays that quantify the function of different types of white blood cells and other active components of the immune system. Samples are secured in the MELFI (Minus-Eighty Laboratory Freezer for ISS). Also included are entries in a fluid/medications intact log, and a stress-test questionnaire to be filled out by the subject at begin and end. Urine is collected during a 24-hour period, conventionally divided into two twelve-hour phases: morning-evening and evening-morning.]

Joe Acaba started his special Reaction Self-Test (Psychomotor Vigilance Self-Test on the ISS) sleep shift session which he will perform every day through 7/5. It was his 10th time. (Sleep shift on 6/29, to accommodate Soyuz 29S departure, will involve a 4 hrs longer crew day, i.e., 2:00am-9:30pm, with a built-in 4-hr midday “nap”). [RST is done twice daily (after wakeup & before bedtime) for 3 days prior to the sleep shift, the day(s) of the sleep shift and 5 days following a sleep shift. The experiment consists of a 5-minute reaction time task that allows crewmembers to monitor the daily effects of fatigue on performance while on ISS. The experiment provides objective feedback on neurobehavioral changes in attention, psychomotor speed, state stability, and impulsivity while on ISS missions, particularly as they relate to changes in circadian rhythms, sleep restrictions, and extended work shifts.]

FE-5 Kuipers completed his final pH test and diet log entry for the Pro K (Dietary Intake Can Predict and Protect against Changes in Bone Metabolism during Spaceflight and Recovery) plus Controlled Diet menu protocol activity. In addition to closing out the associated 24-hr urine sample collections, André also underwent the generic blood draw by self-phlebotomy, photo-documented by Joe Acaba, then set up the RC (Refrigerated Centrifuge) in COL (Columbus Orbital Laboratory) for spinning the samples prior to stowing them in the JPM MELFI (JEM Pressurized Module Minus Eighty Laboratory Freezer for ISS). [The operational products for blood & urine collections for the HRP (Human Research Program) payloads were revised some time ago, based on crew feedback, new cold stowage hardware, and IPV capabilities. Generic blood & urine procedures have been created to allow an individual crewmember to select their payload complement and see specific requirements populated. Individual crewmembers will select their specific parameter in the procedures to reflect their science complement. Different crewmembers will have different required tubes and hardware configurations, so they must verify their choice selection before continuing with operations to ensure their specific instruction. For Pro K, there are five in-flight sessions (FD15, FD30, FD60, FD120, FD180) of samplings, to be shared with the NUTRITION w/Repository protocol, each one with five days of diet & urine pH logging and photography on the last day (science sessions are often referred to by Flight Day 15, 30, 60, etc. However, there are plus/minus windows associated with these time points so a “Flight Day 15” science session may not actually fall on the crewmember’s 15th day on-orbit). The crewmember prepares a diet log and then annotates quantities of food packets consumed and supplements taken. On Days 4 & 5, urine collections are spread over 24 hrs; samples go into the MELFI (Minus Eighty Laboratory Freezer for ISS) within 30 min after collection. Blood samples, on the last day, are centrifuged in the RC (Refrigerated Centrifuge) and placed in MELFI at -80 degC. There is an 8-hr fasting requirement prior to the blood draw (i.e., no food or drink, but water ingestion is encouraged). MELFI constraints: Maximum MELFI Dewar open time: 60 sec; at least 45 min between MELFI dewar door openings. Background on pH: In chemistry, pH (Potential Hydrogen) is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a watery solution. Pure water is neutral, with a pH close to 7.0 at 25 degC. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are “acidic” and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are “basic” or “alkaline”. pH measurements are important in medicine, biology, chemistry, agriculture, forestry, food science, environmental science, oceanography, civil engineers and many others.]

Gennady Padalka spent several hours on the standard water sample collections for return to Earth on Soyuz TMA-03M/29S (7/1). [Samples were collected in the SM from the KAV Condensate Container of the SRV-K2M Condensate Water Processor (water recovery system) upstream of the BKO water purification (multifiltration) unit, and, into empty drink bags, from the SVO-ZV potable water tap, the BRP-M Modified Water Distribution & Heating Unit (after flushing out its TEPL warm port valve several times with water from an EDV container and catching it in a second EDV). Deferred for today was the sampling of KAV condensate water from the SRV-K2M Condensate Water Processor (Water Recovery System) upstream of the FGS gas/liquid mixture filter/separator and the BKO water purification (multifiltration) unit. Gennady then removed sampler & separator and disposed of flush water.]

Kononenko performed his 4th preliminary (predvariteljnaya) ODNT orthostatic hemodynamic endurance test run with the Russian Chibis-M suit in preparation for his return to gravity on 7/1 (along with André Kuipers & Don Pettit). Oleg conducted the exercise protocol in the below-the-waist reduced-pressure ODNT device (US: LBNP/Lower Body Negative Pressure) on the TVIS treadmill, assisted by Gennady as CMO (Crew Medical Officer) and supported by ground tagup via VHF at 6:43am EDT. [The Chibis-M provides gravity-simulating stress to the body’s cardiovascular/circulatory system for evaluation of the crewmember’s orthostatic tolerance (e.g., the Gauer-Henry reflex) after his long-term stay in zero-G. The preparatory training consists of first imbibing 150-200 milliliters of water or juice, followed by a sequence of progressive regimes of reduced (“negative”) pressure, set at -25, -30, -35, and -40 mmHg for five min. each while shifting from foot to foot at 10-12 steps per minute, wearing a sphygmomanometer to measure blood pressure and the REG SHKO Rheoencephalogram Biomed Cap, supported by the Gamma-1M biomed data control system. The body’s circulatory system interprets the pressure differential between upper and lower body as a gravity-like force pulling the blood (and other liquids) down. Chibis data and biomed cardiovascular readings are recorded. The Chibis suit (not to be confused with the Russian “Pinguin” suit for spring-loaded body compression, or the “Kentavr” anti-g suit worn during reentry) is similar to the U.S. LBNP facility (not a suit) used for the first time on Skylab in 1973/74, although it appears to accomplish its purpose more quickly.]

With the Lab video camcorder set up to cover the CIR (Combustion Integrated Rack) on its Node-1 side, FE-3 Acaba accessed the CIR rack and prepared it for the upcoming Convective Flow experiments of the MDCA FLEX-2 payload. [Steps included opening the rack doors, replacing the MDCA (Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus) Fuel Reservoir in location 1 and the MDCA Fiber Arm inside the MDCA CIA (Chamber Insert Assembly). The combustion chamber front end cap and both CIR rack doors were then closed, two switches were activated and POIC (Payload Operations Integration Center) was notified that the rack was ready to be commanded on RPC (Remote Power Controller).]

The CDR prepared the Soyuz 29S (#703) spacecraft for undocking by loading discarded cargo on its BO Orbital Module for disposal and preparing the standard certificate of return cargo transfers (stowage locations, quantity updates) plus layout charts of containers & equipment stowed in the SA Descent Module. [Discarded were 3 KTO solid waste containers, 1 EDV-U urine container, 3 Penguin-3 suits, 3 flight boots, and 2 TV camera lights (removed from 29S).]

FE-1 Padalka meanwhile transferred & loaded discarded cargo on Progress 47P. [Included were filled KTO & EDV-U containers, an OSP-4 fire extinguisher, an SNT-120/28 voltage/current stabilizer, a PVK Chibis suit with harness & belt, and TVIS treadmill components.]

FE-5 Kuipers had ~1h set aside for prepacking & transferring US cargo items to be returned on Soyuz 29S. In particular, these include specially marked and photographed “Early Destow” items which are to be unloaded at the landing site and returned with the NASA plane from Kazakhstan.

With its battery freshly charged in the morning, Sergei Revin installed the GFI-1 “Relaksatsiya” (Relaxation) Earth Observation experiment at SM window #9, using it to take spectral and photographic imagery of Earth’s surface and atmosphere (1:00pm-1:10pm EDT) under ground commanding. Later, FE-2 dismantled the equipment for stowage and dumped the data from Laptop 3 via the RSS1 terminal. [By means of the GFI-1 UFK “Fialka-MV-Kosmos” ultraviolet camera, SP spectrometer and SONY HVR-Z7 HD (High Definition) camcorder, the experiment observes the Earth atmosphere and surface from window #9, with spectrometer measurements controlled from Laptop 3. “Relaxation”, in Physics, is the transition of an atom or molecule from a higher energy level to a lower one, emitting radiative energy in the process as equilibrium is achieved.]

In the SM, Sergei later serviced the Russian BTKh-44 “Calcium” payload, placing its four Bioekologiya cases in the work area for taking photographs of their contents and final operations, then stored them for return to Earth.

In the MRM1 Rassvet module, FE-2 serviced the RS (Russian Segment) radiation payload suite “Matryoshka-R” (RBO-3-2), verifying proper function of the radiation detectors by taking readings from the LULIN-5 electronics box located near the spherical “phantom”. [A total of eight Bubble dosimeter detectors (dosimeters (A41, A42, A43, A44, A45, A46, A47, A48) are deployed in the RS. The complex Matryoshka payload suite is designed for sophisticated radiation studies. Note: Matryoshka is the name for the traditional Russian set of nested dolls.]

CDR Kononenko took documentary photographs of a BITS2-12 telemetry cable with damaged branches behind SM panels 226 & 227 for downlink to the ground via OCA. [The damaged TLM (telemetry) cables connect to temperature control sensors T101-T106 of six 800A main batteries (nos. 1-6).]

Kononenko also completed the periodic transfer of U.S. condensate water from CWCs (Contingency Water Containers, #1008, #1085) to the RS for the periodic (about twice a month) replenishing of the Elektron’s water supply for electrolysis, filling the designated KOV EDV container. Once filled, the EDV is connected to the BPK transfer pump for processing through the BKO water purification (multifiltration) unit. [The 40-minute procedure is specially designed to prevent air bubbles larger than ~10 mm from getting into the BZh Liquid Unit where they could cause Elektron shutdown.]

Joe Acaba serviced the WRS (Water Recovery System) in Node-3, manually transferring urine from an EDV-U container (#969) to the UPA WSTA (Urine Processor Assembly / Waste Storage Tank Assembly) for UPA processing. Desired offload quantity: 70%, or until #969 was empty. [During such transfers, the crewmember always wears protective safety goggles, dust mask and nitrile gloves.]

Also in Node-3, André Kuipers later completed routine maintenance on the WRS, first changing out the TOCA WWB (Total Organic Carbon Analyzer Waste Water Bag) with a new one (#1065), then taking water samples for analysis in the TOCA, after first initializing the software and priming (filling) the TOCA water sample hose with water from the WOPA (Water Processor Assembly) and buffer solution from the TOCA Buffer Container. [After the approximately 2 hr TOCA analysis, results were transferred to the SSC-5 (Station Support Computer 5) laptop via USB drive for downlink, and the data were also logged.]

With the NIKON D2Xs camera batteries charged (at least 3 hrs prior to use), Don Pettit prepared for and then conducted the first session of the MFMG (Miscible Fluids in Microgravity) payload. (Not performed onboard since 2005). [Steps included reviewing OBT (Onboard Training) material with a crew conference with the PI (Principal Investigator), John Pojman, then setting up the MWA (Maintenance Work Area) plus 3DA1 camcorder and conducting the first syringe injection experiment. Later, the 3D imagery files were transferred to an SSC (Station Support Computer) for downlink, the MWA was cleaned up and equipment items were stowed. Background: In the micro-G of space, fluids do not behave the same as on Earth. Processes which usually are masked by Earth’s gravity become much more evident — playing a bigger role in the process of mixing fluids to make materials. MFMG studies how miscible fluids — those that completely dissolve — interact without the interference of gravity. Immiscible fluids, like oil and water, exhibit “interfacial tension” or surface tension. Oil and water, for example, are made of different types of molecules that pull on each other — preventing the two substances from remaining mixed together — even after stirring. On the other hand, when miscible fluids — like the honey and water — are mixed on Earth, they dissolve and combine easily because they are made of similar types of molecules. MFMG tests a 100-year-old-theory impossible to confirm on Earth: In the mid-1800s, Dutch scientist Diedrick Korteweg predicted that until the molecules of miscible fluids like honey and water diffuse together and become a uniform solution, these fluids would act like immiscible fluids. In micro-G, if a stream of one immiscible fluid is injected into another, the stream will break into drops, due to a surface-tension-driven-phenomenon called Rayleigh-Tomotika instability. MFMG will determine if the same breakup occurs with two miscible fluids by injecting honey into water and observing if the honey stream breaks into drops. On Earth, gravity lets the denser honey sinks in the water. Also, in micro-G a drop of immiscible fluid injected into another fluid will always become spherical. For the first experiment, crewmembers use a syringe to inject dyed honey into water. Within 2 seconds, they will create a stream of honey 2 centimeters long. Under normal gravity, the stream would sink. In weightlessness, the stream can be formed but it is not known if the stream will break up due to the Rayleigh-Tomotika instability. In the second part of the experiment, an aspherical drop of dyed water, approximately 0.5 milliliters, will be injected into the honey for 5 seconds. The process will be videotaped for 30 seconds to determine if the aspherical drop of water will spontaneously assume a spherical shape – which is what a drop of water would do in oil.]

In the US Lab, Don Pettit later conducted a troubleshooting check on SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites) experiment equipment, using the ER2 (EXPRESS Rack 2)’s rack power cable to determine which combination of SPHERES CSAC (Chip-Scale Atomic Clock) units and the Reference Clock powers up properly with it. [The jumper was first to be used to activate the Reference Clock from ER2 Locker 2. If successful, the two CSACs were to be connected individually and each one powered up isolated for the test. An atomic clock uses an electronic transition frequency in the microwave, optical or ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms. The most accurate time and frequency standards known, they are used for international time distribution services, to control the wave frequency of television broadcasts and in global navigation systems such as GPS. CSACs, used for SPHERES, represent the latest development of these atomic timekeeping systems.]

Sergei Revin completed another 30-min. session for the DZZ-13 (Distantsionnoye zondirovaniye zemli/Remote Sensing of Earth-13) “Seiner” ocean observation program, obtaining SONY HDV-Z7E camcorder footage of color bloom patterns in the waters of the South-Eastern Pacific, then copying the images to the RSS2 laptop.

Gennady Padalka had ~1h reserved for another round of filming onboard “Chronicle” newsreel footage using the SONY HVR-Z7E camcorder and the NIKON D2X & D3 still cameras, part of the ongoing effort to create a “Life on the Station” photo & video documentary database on the flight of ISS-31 (“Flight Chronicles”) for Telecanal Roskosmos. [Footage subjects generally include running experiments, current activities at the station, repair activities behind panels, exercise, cosmonauts looking out the window at the Earth, Earth surface, station interior, cosmonaut in zero gravity, leisure, life on orbit, personal hygiene, meals, station exterior, comm. passes with the ground, ham radio passes, station cleaning, spacesuits, space hardware, MRM1, MRM2, DC1, FGB, Soyuz & Progress, intermodular passageways, meeting a new crew, crewmember in space, medical experiments, handover activities, crew return preparations, farewell ceremonies, etc. The photo/video imagery is saved digitally on HDDs (Hard Disk Drives) for return to Earth on Soyuz.]

The CDR took care of the routine daily servicing of the SOZh system (Environment Control & Life Support System, ECLSS) in the SM. [Regular daily SOZh maintenance consists, among else, of checking the ASU toilet facilities, replacement of the KTO & KBO solid waste containers, replacement of EDV-SV waste water and EDV-U urine containers and filling EDV-SV, KOV (for Elektron), EDV-ZV & EDV on RP flow regulator.]

Oleg also conducted the daily IMS (Inventory Management System) maintenance, updating/editing its standard “delta file” including stowage locations, for the regular weekly automated export/import to its three databases on the ground (Houston, Moscow, Baikonur).

Acaba performed the periodic maintenance of the ARED advanced resistive exercise machine of evacuating its cylinder

The 29S crew, Kononenko, Pettit & Kuipers, had another hour set aside each for personal crew departure preparations which are standard pre-return procedures for crewmembers.

Joe had a time slot/placeholder reserved for making entries in his electronic Journal on the personal SSC. [Required are three journaling sessions per week.]

CDR, FE-1, FE-2 & FE-5 had their standard weekly PMCs (Private Medical Conferences), via S- & Ku-band audio/video, Sergei at ~9:45am, Gennady at ~11:55am, André at ~12:25pm, Oleg at ~2:10pm EDT.

At ~8:45am, André conducted the weekly ESA crew conference via phone with EAC (European Astronaut Center) Management near Cologne/Germany.

At ~10:35am, Don, André & Joe supported a PAO Educational TV event, responding to questions from K-12 students and educators participating in NASA’s Summer of Innovation at “Destination Imagination” at Philadelphia, PA. [“For Don: What are you allowed to take with you to space and what is the one thing you wish you had brought?”; “For Joe: What is the most important part of your space suit?”; “For André: How do you do laundry?”; “For Don: Can you have pets on the space station?”; “For Joe: Can you take a shower in space and how do you keep the soap from floating away?”; “For André: How do you stay connected to your family?”; “For Don: Do you believe there is life beyond Earth and are you doing anything on the space station to look for it?”; “For Joe: How do you go to the bathroom in space?”; “For André: What do you have to do to become an astronaut?”; “For Don: Since you can’t go grocery shopping, what happens if you run out of food on the space station?”; “For Joe: How did you get into space and how long does it take to get there?”; For André: Why did you choose to be an astronaut?”; For Don: What do you do if someone gets really sick on the space station?”; “For Joe: Who came up with the idea for the space station and who decides what you do when you are up there?”; For André: What do you do for fun in space?”; “For Don: What do you sleep on in space?”; “For Joe: How do you eat while you are wearing your spacesuit?”; “For André: If there are no pipes or hoses running from Earth to the space station, how do you get clean drinking water and where does the dirty water go?”; “For Don: What does it smell like in space?”; “For Joe: Are your thoughts and feelings different when you are in space?”]

André conducted his session on the T2/COLBERT advanced treadmill with the Treadmill Kinematics protocol, setting up the HD camcorder in Node-1, placing tape markers on his body, recording a calibration card in the FOV (Field of View) and then conducting the workout run within a specified speed range. The video was later downlinked by Kuipers via MPC. [Purpose of the Kinematics T2 experiment is to collect quantitative data by motion capture from which to assess current exercise prescriptions for participating ISS crewmembers. Detailed biomechanical analyses of locomotion will be used to determine if biomechanics differ between normal and microgravity environments and to determine how combinations of external loads and exercise speed influence joint loading during in-flight treadmill exercise. Such biomechanical analyses will aid in understanding potential differences in gait motion and allow for model-based determination of joint & muscle forces during exercise. The data will be used to characterize differences in specific bone and muscle loading during locomotion in the two gravitational conditions. By understanding these mechanisms, appropriate exercise prescriptions can be developed that address deficiencies.]

Before exercising on the ARED, Sergei Revin set up and checked out the G1 video camera in Node-3 for it to record his workout session on the machine, meeting the regular 30-day requirement for biomechanical evaluation of the on-orbit crewmembers, and evaluation of the hardware status. Afterwards, the video footage was stowed by Gennady.

The crew worked out with their regular 2-hr physical exercise protocol on the TVIS treadmill with vibration isolation & stabilization (CDR, FE-1, FE-2), ARED advanced resistive exerciser (FE-2, FE-3, FE-5, FE-6), T2/COLBERT advanced treadmill (FE-3, FE-5, FE-6), and VELO bike ergometer with load trainer (FE-1). [FE-6 is on the special experimental SPRINT protocol which diverts from the regular 2.5 hrs per day exercise regime and introduces special daily sessions involving resistive and aerobic (interval & continuous) exercise, followed by a USND (Ultrasound) leg muscle self scan in COL. No exercise is being timelined for Fridays. If any day is not completed, Don picks up where he left off, i.e., he would be finishing out the week with his last day of exercise on his off day. If any day is not completed, Don picks up where he left off, i.e., he would be finishing out the week with his last day of exercise on his off day. Today’s exercise called for T2 (aerobic/interval), with ARED+T2 (resistive+aerobic/continuous) and CEVIS (aerobic/interval) following in the next 2 days.]

Tasks listed for Kononenko, Revin & Padalka on the Russian discretionary “time permitting” job for today were –

A ~30-min. session for Russia’s EKON Environmental Safety Agency, making observations and taking KPT-3 aerial photography of environmental conditions on Earth using the NIKON D3X camera with the RSK-1 laptop, and
More preparation & downlinking of reportages (written text, photos, videos) for the Roskosmos website to promote Russia’s manned space program (max. file size 500 Mb).

Robotics Update: At ~5:20pm tonight, ground controllers will use the SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) to stow the SPDM (Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator) “Dextre” on the MBS (Mobile Base System) on PDGF-2 (Power & Data Grapple Fixture 2).

CEO (Crew Earth Observation) targets uplinked for today were Kunene River Fan, Namibia-Angola (ISS had a mid-morning pass over this river fan in southwestern Africa, which is just right of track. The fan surface is lighter toned than surrounding landscapes. Very large inland fans [radii hundreds of km], such the Kunene Fan, have only recently been discovered to be widespread on all continents. Researchers are still in discovery mode in understanding river patterns and flood behavior on these vast low-angle conical landforms), Tirane, Albania (Capital Cities Collection: ISS had a mid-afternoon pass over the Adriatic Sea to the capital city of Albania. As it tracked NE, the crew was to look just left of track over the coast in clear weather. Tirane, with a population of over 600,000, is located near the center of the country and about 20 miles inland from the Adriatic Sea), Andorra la Vella, Andorra (Capital Cities Collection: The capital of the tiny Co-principality of Andorra with a population of about 23,000 is situated in a small, high mountain valley of the Valira River in the eastern Pyrenees Mountains between France and Spain. As the crew track NE over the Iberian Peninsula, they were to look right of track to spot this capital city), Coweeta Forest, North Carolina (Long Term Ecological Research [LTER] Site: ISS had a mid-afternoon pass in clear weather over this LTER site in the southern Appalachian Mountains. As the crew tracked NE over the southeastern United States, they were to look nadir to capture long lens shots of Coweeta Forest. This site monitors the effects of disturbance and environmental gradients on biogeochemical cycling, and the underlying watershed ecosystem processes that respond to those cycles. Primarily needed is visible imagery to begin the CEO collection on this site, but IR imagery would be helpful as well. If the crew chose to do a joint visible/IR session, they were to provide researchers with the IR filter information), and Washington, D.C. (World Capitals Collection: ISS had a mid-afternoon pass over our nation’s capital of almost 6 million people living in the metro area. Looking right of track on the ISS ascending pass across the eastern United States, the crew was to take mapping photos of the area and any detailed shots they could acquire).

ISS Orbit (as of this morning, 3:53am EDT [= epoch])
Mean altitude – 399.8 km
Apogee height – 405.5 km
Perigee height – 394.1 km
Period — 92.56 min.
Inclination (to Equator) — 51.64 deg
Eccentricity — 0.0008404
Solar Beta Angle — 5.6 deg (magnitude decreasing)
Orbits per 24-hr. day — 15.56
Mean altitude loss in the last 24 hours — 46 m
Revolutions since FGB/Zarya launch (Nov. 98) – 77,943
Time in orbit (station) — 4967 days
Time in orbit (crews, cum.) — 4254 days.

Significant Events Ahead (all dates Eastern Time and subject to change):
————–Six-crew operations—————-
07/01/12 — Soyuz TMA-03M/29S undock/landing — 12:48am EDT; land ~4:14am (End of Increment 31)
————–Three-crew operations————-
07/14/12 — Soyuz TMA-05M/31S launch – 10:40:03pm EDT — S.Williams (CDR-33)/Y.Malenchenko/A.Hoshide07/17/12 — Soyuz TMA-05M/31S docking — ~12:50am EDT
————–Six-crew operations—————-
07/20/12 — HTV3 launch (~10:18pm EDT)
07/22/12 — Progress M-15M/47P undock
07/24/12 — Progress M-15M/47P re-docking
07/27/12 — HTV3 docking
07/30/12 — Progress M-15M/47P undocking/deorbit
07/31/12 — Progress M16M/48P launch
08/02/12 — Progress M16M/48P docking
08/16/12 — Russian EVA-31
08/30/12 — US EVA-18
09/06/12 — HTV3 undocking
09/17/12 — Soyuz TMA-04M/30S undock/landing (End of Increment 32)
————–Three-crew operations————-
10/15/12 — Soyuz TMA-06M/32S launch – K.Ford (CDR-34)/O.Novitsky/E.Tarelkin
10/17/12 — Soyuz TMA-06M/32S docking
————–Six-crew operations————-
11/01/12 — Progress M-17M/49P launch
11/03/12 — Progress M-17M/49P docking
11/12/12 — Soyuz TMA-05M/31S undock/landing (End of Increment 33)
————–Three-crew operations————-
12/05/12 — Soyuz TMA-07M/33S launch – C.Hadfield (CDR-35)/T.Mashburn/R.Romanenko
12/07/12 — Soyuz TMA-07M/33S docking
————–Six-crew operations————-
12/26/12 — Progress M-18M/50P launch
12/28/12 — Progress M-18M/50P docking
03/19/13 — Soyuz TMA-06M/32S undock/landing (End of Increment 34)
————–Three-crew operations————-
04/02/13 — Soyuz TMA-08M/34S launch – P.Vinogradov (CDR-36)/C.Cassidy/A.Misurkin
04/04/13 — Soyuz TMA-08M/34S docking
————–Six-crew operations————-
05/16/13 — Soyuz TMA-07M/33S undock/landing (End of Increment 35)
————–Three-crew operations————-
05/29/13 — Soyuz TMA-09M/35S launch – M.Suraev (CDR-37)/K.Nyberg/L.Parmitano
05/31/13 — Soyuz TMA-09M/35S docking
————–Six-crew operations————-
09/xx/13 — Soyuz TMA-08M/34S undock/landing (End of Increment 36)
————–Three-crew operations————-
09/xx/13 — Soyuz TMA-10M/36S launch – M.Hopkins/TBD (CDR-38)/TBD
09/xx/13 — Soyuz TMA-10M/36S docking
————–Six-crew operations————-
11/xx/13 — Soyuz TMA-09M/35S undock/landing (End of Increment 37)
————–Three-crew operations————-
11/xx/13 — Soyuz TMA-11M/37S launch – K.Wakata (CDR-39)/R.Mastracchio/TBD
11/xx/13 — Soyuz TMA-11M/37S docking
————–Six-crew operations————-
03/xx/14 — Soyuz TMA-10M/36S undock/landing (End of Increment 38)
————–Three-crew operations————-

SpaceRef staff editor.