Status Report

NASA ISS On-Orbit Status 18 April 2012

By SpaceRef Editor
April 18, 2012
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NASA ISS On-Orbit Status 18 April 2012
NASA ISS On-Orbit Status 18 April 2012

ISS On-Orbit Status 04/18/12

All ISS systems continue to function nominally, except those noted previously or below.

After breakfast, FE-4 Kononenko performed the routine inspection of the SM (Service Module) PSS Caution & Warning panel as part of regular Daily Morning Inspection.

Upon wakeup, CDR Dan Burbank & FE-6 Don Pettit each completed another post-sleep session of the Reaction Self-Test (Psychomotor Vigilance Self-Test on the ISS) protocol, the 41st for Dan, the 35th for Don. [RST is done twice daily (after wakeup & before bedtime) for 3 days prior to the sleep shift, the day(s) of the sleep shift and 5 days following a sleep shift. The experiment consists of a 5-minute reaction time task that allows crewmembers to monitor the daily effects of fatigue on performance while on ISS. The experiment provides objective feedback on neurobehavioral changes in attention, psychomotor speed, state stability, and impulsivity while on ISS missions, particularly as they relate to changes in circadian rhythms, sleep restrictions, and extended work shifts.]

Before breakfast, FE-1 Shkaplerov, FE-2 Ivanishin, FE-4 Kononenko & FE-5 Kuipers completed a session each with the Russian crew health monitoring program’s medical assessment MO-9/Biochemical Urinalysis. Involving visual urine assessment, MO-9 is one of 4 Russian crew health status checkups currently being conducted (the other three: MO-3 (Physical Fitness Evaluation), MO-7 (Calf Volume Measurement) & MO-8 (Body Mass Measurement). [MO-9 is conducted every 30 days (and also before and after EVAs) and is one of five nominal Russian medical tests adopted by NASA for U.S. crewmembers for IMG PHS (Integrated Medical Group/Periodic Health Status) evaluation as part of the “PHS/Without Blood Labs” exam, also conducted today. The analysis uses the sophisticated in-vitro diagnostic apparatus Urolux developed originally by Boehringer (Mannheim/Germany) for the Mir program. Afterwards, the data are entered in the MEC (Medical Equipment Computer)’s special IFEP software (In-Flight Examination Program).]

Burbank re-installed the three PaRIS (Passive Rack Isolation System) lock-down alignment guides on the CIR (Combustion Integrated Rack) at Lab bay S3, engaged the snubber pins and locked safety pins to protect its ARIS (Active Rack Isolation System) from external loading (dynamic disturbances).

For his on-going 5th (R-15) Ambulatory Monitoring session of the ESA ICV (Integrated Cardiovascular) Alternate experiment, CDR Burbank reached midpoint at about 10:15am EDT, after which he began the second 24h data collection period. [For the second 24 hr period, the Cardiopres was temporarily doffed and the HM2 HiFi CF Card and AA Battery were changed out to allow continuation of the session for another 24 hours. After data collection is complete, the Actiwatches and both HM2 HiFi CF Cards are downloaded to the HRF PC1, while Cardiopres data are downloaded to the EPM (European Physiology Module) Rack and transferred to the HRF PC1 via a USB key for downlink. The sessions are scheduled at or around FD14, FD30, FD75, FD135 and R-15 (there will be fewer sessions if mission duration is less than six months). (ICV activities consist of two separate but related parts over a one-week time period: an ultrasound echo scan & an ambulatory monitoring session.)]

Dan also terminated recharge on the first set of EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) batteries in the A/L BSA (Airlock Battery Stowage Assembly) and initiated it on the second set.

Anton Shkaplerov configured the hardware for the Russian MBI-21 PNEVMOKARD experiment, then conducted the 1h 15m session, his 5th, which forbids moving or talking during data recording. The experiment is controlled from the RSE-med A31p laptop and uses the TENZOPLUS sphygmomanometer to measure arterial blood pressure. The experiment was then closed out and the test data were downlinked via OCA. [PNEVMOKARD (Pneumocard) attempts to obtain new scientific information to refine the understanding about the mechanisms used by the cardiorespiratory system and the whole body organism to spaceflight conditions. By recording (on PCMCIA cards) the crewmember’s electrocardiogram, impedance cardiogram, low-frequency phonocardiogram (seismocardiogram), pneumotachogram (using nose temperature sensors), and finger photoplethismogram, the experiment supports integrated studies of (1) the cardiovascular system and its adaptation mechanisms in various phases of a long-duration mission, (2) the synchronization of heart activity and breathing factors, as well as the cardiorespiratory system control processes based on the variability rate of physiological parameters, and (3) the interconnection between the cardiorespiratory system during a long-duration mission and the tolerance of orthostatic & physical activities at the beginning of readaptation for predicting possible reactions of the crewmembers organism during the their return to ground.]

Working in the Soyuz TMA-22/28S spacecraft, Anatoly Ivanishin removed & replaced the collector unit in the ASU toilet facility.

In the ESA COL (Columbus Orbital Laboratory), FE-5 Kuipers activated the EPM (European Physiology Module) laptop and changed the Video Unit auto-reconnection setting for the subsequent CARD activity.

With the VCA1 (Video Camera Assembly 1) configured for coverage, André Kuipers then began Day 1 of his two-day CARD (Long Term Microgravity: Model for Investigating Mechanisms of Heart Disease) activity, his 2nd on board ISS. [For the session, André first set up the PFS (Pulmonary Function System) with PFM/PAM (Pulmonary Function Module/Photoacoustic Analyzer Module) and GDS (Gas Delivery System), which requires a 45-minute warm up of the PFM/PAM prior to use for the CARD rebreathe exercises. FE-5 then donned & activated the HLTA BP (Holter Arterial Blood Pressure) instrument, to run for the next 24-hrs, collecting BP and HR (heart rate) data every hour during the day and every two hours during sleep, then calibrated the PAM for the subsequent rebreathing exercises with mixing bag, and started urine collections. The CARD protocol included a 24h urine collection on Day 1, a 24h blood pressure monitoring with the HLTA, a blood draw (in the morning of Day 2), and five cardiac output measurements performed with the HRF-2 PFS via re-breathing technique (three double re-breathing sessions with the 4L Re-breathing Bag on Day 1 and two on Day 2).]

As part of the R&R (removal & replacement) of the fan box of the KhSA Cooler/Dehumidifier Assembly in the SA (Descent Module) of the TMA-22/28S spacecraft, Shkaplerov today removed the V1 fan from the KhSA fan box, dismantled yesterday in the SA, and packed it up with its cable and capacitor for return to Earth on 28S. The remaining V2 fan was pre-packed for disposal in the Soyuz 28S BO (Orbital Module).

Oleg Kononenko wrapped up loading Progress M-14/46P (#414) with trash, and then downlinked his “Loading Complete” report.

Later, Anton Shkaplerov activated the Progress M-14M/46P (#414) electronics and took out the ventilation/heating air duct from the DC1 Docking Module.

Anton & Oleg then jointly performed the final steps of preparing Progress M-14M/46P for tomorrow morning’s undocking (7:03am EDT), by –

* Installing the docking mechanism (StM, Stykovochnovo mekhanizma) between the cargo ship and the DC1 nadir port [the StM is the “classic” probe-and-cone type, consisting of an active docking assembly (ASA) with a probe (SSh), which fits into the cone (SK) on the passive docking assembly (PSA) for initial soft dock and subsequent retraction to hard dock. The ASA is mounted on the Progress’ cargo module (GrO), while the PSA sits on the docking ports of the SM (Service Module), FGB, MRM2 and DC1],
* Removing the QD (quick disconnect) screw clamps (BZV) of the docking & internal transfer mechanism (SSVP) which rigidized the joint,
* Closing the hatches;
* Conducting the standard one-hour leak checking of the SU docking vestibule and fuel/oxidizer transfer line interface between Progress & DC1, and
* Downlinking the video depicting the close-out activities via OCA, for review by ground specialists. [During hatch closure, leak checking and initial clamp installation, Russian thrusters as usual were inhibited due to load constraints (10:20am-12:00pm EDT).]

The CDR unstowed the potable water sample collected yesterday from the PWD (Potable Water Dispenser) for inflight analysis with the CWQMK (Colorimetric Water Quality Monitoring Kit), first establishing an Iodine standard, then completing the Silver standard and analysis. [Afterwards, data were downloaded on a T61p laptop (#1011) and the CWQMK kit stowed temporarily in the CWQMK Nomex pouch.]

Dan also performed the periodic inspection of the PEPs (Portable Emergency Provisions), checking PFEs (Portable Fire Extinguishers, PBAs (Portable Breathing Apparatus), and EHTKs (Extension Hose Tee Kits). Mask harness inspection was not required at this time. [PFEs: 2 in Node-1, 1 in A/L (Airlock), 2 in Lab,1 in Node-2, 2 in Node-3, 2 in JPM, 1 in JLP, 2 in COL, 1 in PMM. PBA O2 Bottles: 5 in Node-1, 1 in A/L, 2 in Lab, 1 in Node-2, 2 in Node-3, 2 in JPM, 1 in JLP, 2 in COL, 1 in PMM. QDMAs or Prebreathe Masks: 6 in Node-1, 2 in A/L, 2 in Lab, 2 in Node-2, 2 in Node-3, 2 in JPM, 1 in JLP, 2 in COL, 1 in PMM. EHTKs: 2 in Node-1, 1 in Lab, 2 in Node-2, 1 in Node-3.]

Continuing the current round of monthly preventive maintenance of RS (Russian Segment) ventilation systems, Ivanishin replaced the PF1-PF4 dust filter cartridges in the SM with fresh units from FGB stowage. The old cartridges were discarded and the IMS (Inventory Management System) updated.

Afterwards, Anatoly donned his intravehicular Sokol pressure suit and performed the standard fit-check in his body-contoured Kazbek couch in the TMA-22/28S spacecraft, docked at MRM2, a 20-min job.

FE-1 & FE-2 underwent their 3rd preliminary (predvariteljnaya) ODNT run, assisted by Oleg Kononenko and ground telemetry support at 6:19am for Anatoly, 12:29pm EDT for Anton. [The Chibis run was conducted in the below-the-waist reduced-pressure device (ODNT, US: LBNP/Lower Body Negative Pressure) on the TVIS treadmill. The Chibis provides gravity-simulating stress to the body’s cardiovascular/circulatory system for evaluation of the crewmember’s orthostatic tolerance (e.g., the Gauer-Henry reflex) after his long-term stay in zero-G. Data output includes blood pressure readings. The preparatory training generally consists of first imbibing 150-200 milliliters of water or juice, followed by one cycle of a sequence of progressive regimes of reduced (“negative”) pressure, today set at -25, -30, -35, and -40 mmHg for five min. each, while shifting from foot to foot at 10-12 steps per minute, while wearing a sphygmomanometer to measure blood pressure and the REG SHKO Rheoencephalogram Biomed Cap. The body’s circulatory system interprets the pressure differential between upper and lower body as a gravity-like force pulling the blood (and other liquids) down. Chibis data and biomed cardiovascular readings are recorded. The Chibis suit (not to be confused with the Russian “Pinguin” suit for spring-loaded body compression, or the “Kentavr” anti-g suit worn during reentry) is similar to the U.S. LBNP facility (not a suit) used for the first time on Skylab in 1973/74, although it appears to accomplish its purpose more quickly.]

FE-6 Pettit had several hours set aside for more activities with Robonaut, covered by cabin video for ground monitoring in near real-time from Node-2. [After reviewing procedures, Don deployed & attached the Robonaut task board in the US Lab at D2, then configured & powered on Robonaut at its Lab P2 seat track location, after which ground commanding tuned the waist joint to determine proper gain settings for operating in micro-g. The right arm was then maneuvered around to characterize performance of the machine vision cameras. Robonaut moved under ground control from 6:55am-11:50am. At the end, Don manually rotated Robonaut to face Deck, leaving it assembled overnight in preparation for tomorrow’s activities.]

In Node-3, Don later installed the CCR (Cupolas Crew Restraint) at the Cup RWS (Robotic Workstation) in preparation for the subsequent SSRMS OBT (Space Station Remote Manipulator System Onboard Training) session (later removing it again), and also set up the SSRMS DOUG (Dynamic Onboard Ubiquitous Graphics) application. [DOUG is a special application running on the MSS (Mobile Service System) RWS (Robotics Workstation) laptops that provides a graphical birdseye-view image of the external station configuration and the SSRMS arm, showing its real-time location and configuration on a laptop during its operation. CCR serves to stabilize an SSRMS operator at the worksite in micro-g, acting similar to a “seat belt”.]

Kuipers & Pettit then spent ~2hrs on the first (of three) Space-X Demo Offset Grapple OBT sessions, practicing SSRMS misaligned grapple approaches in preparation for the Dragon capture. [Objectives of the OBT are: Familiarization with robotic operations from the Cupola RWS, practice good hand controller techniques and successful grapple approaches, and execute a Hot Backup transition and CCP (Crew Command Panel) relocation to the Lab RWS. There are a total of three SSRMS Offset Grapples sessions in the OBT plan for Dragon capture. For the sessions, the robotarm is pre-positioned at the PMM FRGF (Permanent Multipurpose Module Flight Releasable Grapple Fixture) High Hover Position, and the crew is free to complete misaligned grapple approaches to the PMM FRGF in order to familiarize themselves with operations from the Cupola RWS (volumetric constraints, stabilization, camera lighting, CCP lighting, etc.). During the final session, Don & André have the opportunity to practice a full Hot Backup transition, including the CCP relocation to the Lab RWS in the 3rd session.]

Kononenko took care of the daily IMS (Inventory Management System) maintenance, updating/editing its standard “delta file” including stowage locations, for the regular weekly automated export/import to its three databases on the ground (Houston, Moscow, Baikonur).

Ivanishin completed the routine daily servicing of the SOZh system (Environment Control & Life Support System, ECLSS) in the SM. [Regular daily SOZh maintenance consists, among else, of checking the ASU toilet facilities, replacement of the KTO & KBO solid waste containers, replacement of EDV-SV waste water and EDV-U urine containers and filling EDV-SV, KOV (for Elektron), EDV-ZV & EDV on RP flow regulator.]

Anatoly also conducted the regular transfer of US condensate water from CWC (Contingency Water Container, #1000) to the RS for the periodic (about twice a month) replenishing of the Elektron’s water supply for electrolysis, filling the designated KOV EDV container. Once filled, the EDV was connected to the BPK transfer pump for processing through the BKO water purification (multifiltration) unit. [The 40-minute procedure is specially designed for gas/liquid separation, i.e., to prevent air bubbles larger than ~10 mm from getting into the Elektron’s BZh Liquid Unit where they could cause Elektron shutdown.]

In the Lab, André Kuipers accessed the NanoRacks Modules and collected data for subsequent transfer to the ER-1 (EXPRESS Rack 1) laptop.

André also unstowed and readied the experiment kit for his 4th (FD120) suite of sessions with the controlled Pro K diet protocol (Dietary Intake Can Predict and Protect against Changes in Bone Metabolism during Spaceflight and Recovery), starting tomorrow with breakfast and the urine pH spot test, collected the same time of day every day for 5 days. [For Pro K, there are five in-flight sessions (FD15, FD30, FD60, FD120, FD180) of samplings, to be shared with the NUTRITION w/Repository protocol, each one with five days of diet & urine pH logging and photography on the last day (science sessions are often referred to by Flight Day 15, 30, 60, etc. However, there are plus/minus windows associated with these time points so a “Flight Day 15” science session may not actually fall on the crewmember’s 15th day on-orbit). The crewmember prepares a diet log and then annotates quantities of food packets consumed and supplements taken. On Days 4 & 5, urine collections are spread over 24 hrs; samples go into the MELFI (Minus Eighty Laboratory Freezer for ISS) within 30 min after collection. Blood samples, on the last day, are centrifuged in the RC (Refrigerated Centrifuge) and placed in MELFI at -80 degC. There is an 8-hr fasting requirement prior to the blood draw (i.e., no food or drink, but water ingestion is encouraged). MELFI constraints: Maximum MELFI dewar open time: 60 sec; at least 45 min between MELFI dewar door openings.]

Don set up the equipment for the CSA (Canadian Space Agency) VASC/Vascular Blood Collection protocol scheduled tomorrow for him, assisted by Dan, his first sampling. [After the blood draw, samples will be spun in the RC (Refrigerated Centrifuge) prior to stowing them in the MELFI (Minus Eighty Laboratory Freezer for ISS), after recording the blood tube bar codes. Led by the Canadian University of Waterloo’s Dr. Richard Hughson, VASCULAR is studying the long-term effects of weightlessness on the cardiovascular system. Previous medical tests have shown that astronauts who live and work in space for long periods of time experience changes in their blood vessels that are like the aging on Earth. But in space these changes happen in months instead of years and decades. The blood vessels become stiffer and lose their elasticity. This can change blood pressure and affect blood flow to vital organs such as the brain and kidney. A number of international astronauts are taking part in VASCULAR, each staying about 6 months on the station. Their blood samples are being returned to Dr. Hughson’s laboratory for measurements of unique protein and hormone markers that could accelerate vascular aging. The results of VASCULAR will offer a better understanding of the inner mechanisms of cardiovascular changes during long-duration space missions. The findings can also help people who suffer from premature cardiovascular aging right now back home on Earth.]

FE-1 Shkaplerov performed his 11th data collection session for the psychological MBI-16 Vzaimodejstvie (“Interactions”) program, accessing and completing the computerized study questionnaire on the RSE-Med laptop and saving the data in an encrypted file. [The software has a “mood” questionnaire, a “group & work environment” questionnaire, and a “critical incidents” log. Results from the study, which is also mirrored by ground control subjects, could help to improve the ability of future crewmembers to interact safely and effectively with each other and with Mission Control, to have a more positive experience in space during multi-cultural, long-duration missions, and to successfully accomplish mission activities.]

FE-2 Ivanishin broke out and set up the equipment for the MBI-29 IMMUNO (Neuroendocrine & Immune Responses in Humans During & After Long Term Stay at ISS) experiment, consisting of the Plazma-03 consumables kit, the SALIVA-I IMMUNO kit and the Plazma-03 Centrifuge. [MBI-29 is scheduled tomorrow for Anton & Anatoly.]

In Node-3, Dan Burbank accessed the unpowered OGS (Oxygen Generator System) Rack, purged the H2 (hydrogen) Sensor ORU (Orbital Replacement Unit) with the HOPA (Hydrogen Sensor ORU Purge Adapter) for return to Earth, and replaced the H2 Sensor with a new spare, then cleaned the rack AAA (Avionics Air Assembly).

Shkaplerov & Ivanishin had another hour set aside each for personal crew departure preparations which are standard pre-return procedures for crewmembers.

At ~4:40am EDT, the three Russian Flight Engineers conducted a PAO TV downlink, addressing messages of greetings to two events: (1) participants of the “Unknown Gagarin” competition finals, and (2) the citizens of Krasnoyarsk. [(1) On 4/23, the finals of the “Unknown Gagarin” competition among the pupils of pre-college general education institutions under the RF Ministry of Defense, will take place at the Command & Control Post of the G. S. Titov Space Center Main Testing Facility, in the presence of O. N. Ostapenko, Commander of Aerospace Defense forces, and Y. G Priyezheva, the Head of Education Department of RF Ministry of Defense. (2) In April 2012 the one-millionth resident was born in the city of Krasnoyarsk. Because of this event the regional center was awarded a title of a city with a million residents. Krasnoyarsk is a city where space technologies are being developed, and air- and spacecraft are being built.]

At ~12:05pm, André Kuipers downlinked PAO TV messages to two European events: (1) the 2012 ISS Symposium on “Research in Space for the Benefit of Humankind” in Berlin, Germany, 5/2-5/4; (2) the arrival and contributions of ATV-3 “Eduardo Amaldi”, to be distributed to European TV Channels, published on the ESA web portal, and distributed to the European space community via social network channels.

At ~12:25pm, Don Pettit conducted a teleconference with the ground to discuss IMS BCR (Bar Code Reader) specifics.

CDR & FE-6 will have their regular weekly PMCs (Private Medical Conferences) via S- & Ku-band audio/video, Don at ~12:55pm, Dan at ~3:15pm EDT.

At ~3:30pm, Pettit also is scheduled for his weekly PFC (Private Family Conference), via S-band/audio and Ku-band/MS-NetMeeting application (which displays the uplinked ground video on an SSC laptop).

Before Presleep, FE-6 will turn on the MPC (Multi-Protocol Converter) and start the Ku-band data flow of video recorded during the day to the ground, with POIC (Payload Operations & Integration Center) routing the onboard HRDL (High-Rate Data Link). After about an hour, Don turns MPC routing off again. [This is a routine operation which regularly transmits HD onboard video (live or tape playback) to the ground on a daily basis before sleeptime

Pettit had another time slot reserved (on the discretionary task list) for making entries in his electronic Journal on the personal SSC. [Required are three journaling sessions per week.]

The crew worked out with their regular 2-hr physical exercise protocol on the CEVIS cycle ergometer with vibration isolation (CDR, FE-5), TVIS treadmill with vibration isolation & stabilization (FE-1, FE-2, FE-4), ARED advanced resistive exerciser (CDR, FE-5, FE-6), T2/COLBERT advanced treadmill (FE-1, FE-2, FE-6) and VELO ergometer bike with load trainer (FE-4). [FE-6 is on the special experimental SPRINT protocol which diverts from the regular 2.5 hrs per day exercise regime and introduces special daily sessions, followed by a USND (Ultrasound) leg muscle self scan in COL. No exercise is being timelined for Fridays. If any day is not completed, Don picks up where he left off, i.e., he would be finishing out the week with his last day of exercise on his off day.]

After Anton’s T2 session, Anatoly closed down the T2 software on its laptop for data transfer, then turned off the T2 display. [After the display shutdown, the T2 rack is power cycled (turned off/on) from the ground, and T2 is then ready for use. These power cycles allow for the T2 data to be transferred to the Server for downlink.]

Tasks listed for Shkaplerov, Kononenko & Ivanishin on the Russian discretionary “time permitting” job for today were –

* A ~30-min. run of the GFI-8 “Uragan” (hurricane) earth-imaging program with the NIKON D3X digital camera with Sigma AF 300-800mm telelens, focusing on the Volcanoes Kilimanjaro, Cordon-Kaul, Sangay, Tanguraua, Reventador, Galeras, Nevado del Ruiz, Santa Maria & Fuego, Russian island, Tanzania, the glaciers of the Pamir, Aral Sea, Patagonian glaciers Upsala, Viedma and Chico, Ankohuma Mountain, Gore, and Auckland,
* A ~30-min. session for Russia’s EKON Environmental Safety Agency, making observations and taking KPT-3 aerial photography of environmental conditions on Earth using the NIKON D3X camera with the RSK-1 laptop, and
* More preparation & downlinking of reportages (written text, photos, videos) for the Roskosmos website to promote Russia’s manned space program (max. file size 500 Mb).

CEO (Crew Earth Observation) targets uplinked for today were Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania (ISS had an early afternoon pass directly over Africa’s highest mountain located in northern Tanzania near the border with Kenya. Approach was from the SW and while the surrounding area may have been partly cloudy, the summit area should have been cloud-free. Trying for detailed views of the summit ice fields, glaciers, and snow cover), Lake Nasser, Toshka Lakes, Egypt (ISS had a mid-afternoon pass in fair weather offering good, oblique views of this target area. The Toshka Lakes formed in the late 1990’s when record high water in the Nile River and Lake Nasser spilled out into desert depressions to the west. Since then the lakes have persisted, but continue to slowly dry up. Lake Nasser is one of the largest man-made lakes in the world, holding an enormous 157 cubic kilometers of water, with a shoreline length of 7844 km. At this time as ISS tracked northeastward to the east of the Nile, the crew was to aim left of track for context views of the area), Ascension Island, Atlantic Ocean (HMS BEAGLE SITE: At this time, looking just to the left of track for this small, remote island in the Equatorial Atlantic. The early afternoon approach will be from the SW with partly cloudy weather expected. The island was visited by Charles Darwin in 1836, and today it is the location of Wideawake Airfield, an ESA tracking station, and a BBC World Service relay station), Niamey, Niger (WORLD CAPITALS COLLECTION SITE: The capital city of Niger with a population of about 800,000 lies on a broad bend of the Niger River as it bisects a plateau in the extreme southwestern part of the country. Today ISS had a mid-afternoon pass in partly cloudy weather with some dust possibly in the air. At this time as it approached from the SW, the crew was to look towards nadir and try for contextual views of this city within a single frame), and St. Paul Rocks Islets, Brazil (HMS BEAGLE SITE: Darwin and the Beagle briefly visited this isolated, equatorial Atlantic site in early February of 1832. This tiny group of islets and rocks is also known as the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago. The islands are of particular interest to geologists as they expose rocks associated with the Earth’s mantle above sea level. At this time the crew was to look carefully just right of track for these small features. With fair weather expected they should have been able to photograph all of them in a detailed mapping pass).

ISS Orbit (as of this morning, 8:07am EDT [= epoch])
Mean altitude – 392.2 km
Apogee height – 397.3 km
Perigee height – 387.1 km
Period — 92.40 min.
Inclination (to Equator) — 51.64 deg
Eccentricity — 0.0007604
Solar Beta Angle — 38.7 deg (magnitude decreasing)
Orbits per 24-hr. day — 15.58
Mean altitude loss in the last 24 hours — 83 m
Revolutions since FGB/Zarya launch (Nov. 98) — 76,871
Time in orbit (station) — 4898 days
Time in orbit (crews, cum.) — 4185 days

Significant Events Ahead (all dates Eastern Time and subject to change):
————–Six-crew operations—————-
04/19/12 — Progress M-14M/46P undock (7:03am EDT)
46P Orbital Operations
04/20/12 — Progress M-15M/47P launch (8:50:26am EDT)
04/22/12 — Progress M-15M/47P docking (~10:40am)
04/27/12 — Soyuz TMA-22/28S undock (4:19am EDT)
04/27/12 — Soyuz TMA-22/28S landing (7:45am EDT; 2:45pm DMT/Moscow) (End of Increment 30)
04/28/12 — Progress M-14M/46P deorbit burn (6:33am EDT)
————–Three-crew operations————-
04/30/12 — SpaceX Dragon launch (12:22pm EDT; target date)
05/15/12 — Soyuz TMA-04M/30S launch – G.Padalka (CDR-32)/J.Acaba/S.Revin
05/17/12 — Soyuz TMA-04M/30S docking (MRM2)
————–Six-crew operations—————-
07/01/12 — Soyuz TMA-03M/29S undock/landing (End of Increment 31)
————–Three-crew operations————-
07/15/12 — Soyuz TMA-05M/31S launch – S.Williams (CDR-33)/Y.Malenchenko/A.Hoshide
07/17/12 — Soyuz TMA-05M/31S docking
07/20/12 — HTV3 launch (~10:18pm EDT)
07/31/12 — Progress M16M/48P launch
08/02/12 — Progress M16M/48P docking
————–Six-crew operations—————-
09/17/12 — Soyuz TMA-04M/30S undock/landing (End of Increment 32)
————–Three-crew operations————-
10/15/12 — Soyuz TMA-06M/32S launch – K.Ford (CDR-34)/O.Novitskiy/E.Tarelkin
10/17/12 — Soyuz TMA-06M/32S docking
————–Six-crew operations————-
11/01/12 — Progress M-17M/49P launch
11/03/12 — Progress M-17M/49P docking
11/12/12 — Soyuz TMA-05M/31S undock/landing (End of Increment 33)
————–Three-crew operations————-
12/05/12 — Soyuz TMA-07M/33S launch – C.Hadfield (CDR-35)/T.Mashburn/R.Romanenko
12/07/12 — Soyuz TMA-07M/33S docking
————–Six-crew operations————-
12/26/12 — Progress M-18M/50P launch
12/28/12 — Progress M-18M/50P docking
03/19/13 — Soyuz TMA-06M/32S undock/landing (End of Increment 34)
————–Three-crew operations————-
04/02/13 — Soyuz TMA-08M/34S launch – P.Vinogradov (CDR-36)/C.Cassidy/A.Misurkin
04/04/13 — Soyuz TMA-08M/34S docking
————–Six-crew operations————-
05/16/13 — Soyuz TMA-07M/33S undock/landing (End of Increment 35)
————–Three-crew operations————-
05/29/13 — Soyuz TMA-09M/35S launch – M.Suraev (CDR-37)/K.Nyberg/L.Parmitano
05/31/13 — Soyuz TMA-09M/35S docking
————–Six-crew operations————-
09/xx/13 — Soyuz TMA-08M/34S undock/landing (End of Increment 36)
————–Three-crew operations————-
09/xx/13 — Soyuz TMA-10M/36S launch – M.Hopkins/TBD (CDR-38)/TBD
09/xx/13 — Soyuz TMA-10M/36S docking
————–Six-crew operations————-
11/xx/13 — Soyuz TMA-09M/35S undock/landing (End of Increment 37)
————–Three-crew operations————-
11/xx/13 — Soyuz TMA-11M/37S launch – K.Wakata (CDR-39)/R.Mastracchio/TBD
11/xx/13 — Soyuz TMA-11M/37S docking
————–Six-crew operations————-
03/xx/14 — Soyuz TMA-10M/36S undock/landing (End of Increment 38)
————–Three-crew operations————-

SpaceRef staff editor.