Status Report

NASA ISS On-Orbit Status 14 October 2010

By SpaceRef Editor
October 15, 2010
Filed under , , ,
NASA ISS On-Orbit Status 14 October 2010

All ISS systems continue to function nominally, except those noted previously or below.

At wake-up, FE-5 Yurchikhin conducted the regular daily early-morning check of the aerosol filters at the Russian Elektron O2 generator which Maxim Suraev had installed on 10/19/09 in gaps between the BZh Liquid Unit and the oxygen outlet pipe (filter FA-K) plus hydrogen outlet pipe (filter FA-V). [FE-5 again inspects the filters before bedtime tonight, currently a daily requirement per plan, with photographs to be taken if the filter packing is discolored.]

After wakeup, CDR Wheelock & FE-6 Walker performed another session of the Reaction Self Test (Psychomotor Vigilance Self Test on the ISS) protocol. [The RST is done twice daily (after wakeup & before bedtime) for 3 days prior to the sleep shift, the day(s) of the sleep shift and 5 days following a sleep shift. The experiment consists of a 5-minute reaction time task that allows crewmembers to monitor the daily effects of fatigue on performance while on ISS. The experiment provides objective feedback on neurobehavioral changes in attention, psychomotor speed, state stability, and impulsivity while on ISS missions, particularly as they relate to changes in circadian rhythms, sleep restrictions, and extended work shifts.]

Wheelock, Kelly & Walker continued their current week-long activity with the post-wakeup experiment SLEEP (Sleep-Wake Actigraphy & Light Exposure during Spaceflight), 6th for Wheels & Shannon, 1st for Scott, transferring data from their Actiwatches to the HRF-1 (Human Research Facility 1) laptop. [To monitor their sleep/wake patterns and light exposure during a SLEEP session, crewmembers wear a special Actiwatch device which measures the light levels encountered by him/her as well as their patterns of sleep and activity throughout the Expedition, using the payload software for data logging and filling in questionnaire entries in the experiment’s laptop session file on the HRF-1 laptop. The log entries are done within 15 minutes of final awakening for seven consecutive days.]

FE-2 Skripochka concluded his first session of the standard 24-hour ECG (electrocardiogram) recording under the Russian MedOps PZE MO-2 protocol, started yesterday. [After the ECG recording and blood pressure measurements with the Kardiomed system, Alex doffed the five-electrode Holter harness that read his dynamic (in motion) heart function from two leads over the past 24 hours, recording data on the “Kardioregistrator 90205” unit. The examination results were then downloaded from the Holter ECG device to the RSE-Med laptop, controlled by the Kardiomed application. Later, the data were downlinked as a compressed .zip-file via OCA.]

Before breakfast & first exercise, Alex, Oleg & Fyodor took a full session with the Russian crew health monitoring program’s medical assessment MO-9/Biochemical Urinalysis. Afterwards, Yurchikhin closed out and stowed the Urolux hardware. [MO-9 is conducted every 30 days (and also before and after EVAs) and is one of five nominal Russian medical tests adopted by NASA for U.S. crewmembers for IMG PHS (Integrated Medical Group/Periodic Health Status) evaluation as part of the “PHS/Without Blood Labs” exam, also conducted today. The analysis uses the sophisticated in-vitro diagnostic apparatus Urolux developed originally by Boehringer (Mannheim/Germany) for the Mir program. Afterwards, the data are entered in the MEC (Medical Equipment Computer)’s special IFEP software (In-Flight Examination Program).]

Using the SLAMMD (Space Linear Acceleration Mass Measurement Device) equipment and appropriate software, set up by Scott Kelly, CDR Wheelock, FE-6 Walker & FE3 Kelly each completed a body mass measurement (BMM). Shannon then stowed the gear. [SLAMMD, performed first on Expedition 12 in December 2005, provides an accurate means of determining the on-orbit mass of humans spanning the range from the 5th percentile Japanese female to the 95th percentile American male. The procedure, in accordance with Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion, finds the mass by dividing force, generated by two springs inside the SLAMMD drawer, by acceleration measured with a precise optical instrument that detects the position versus time trajectory of the SLAMMD guide arm and a micro controller which collects the raw data and provides the precise timing. The final computation is done via portable laptop computer with SLAMMD unique software. To calculate their mass, crewmembers wrap their legs around a leg support assembly, align the stomach against a belly pad and either rest the head or chin on a head rest. For calibration, an 18-lbs. mass is used at different lengths from the pivot point, to simulate different mass values. Crew mass range is from 90 to 240 lbs.]

Alex Kaleri had 2h 50m reserved for doing his 4th onboard session of the Russian biomedical MBI-15 “Pilot-M”/NEURO signal response experiment after setting up the workplace and equipment, assisted by Skripochka. Later, the Pilot-M & Neurolab-2000M gear was disassembled & stowed away, data files were downloaded, and Alex reported to TsUP on his run. [MBI-15 requires the Multipurpose Hardware Bench as a table, ankle restraint system, eyeball electrodes for an EOG (electrooculogram), and two hand controllers (RUO & RUD) for testing piloting skill in “flying” simulations on a laptop (RSK1) with software (v. 2.0) under stopwatch control, as well as for studying special features of the psychophysiologic response of cosmonauts to the effects of stress factors in flight.]

With the Lab camcorder providing live coverage, Wheelock worked on the FIR FCF (Fluids Integrated Rack Fluids & Combustion Facility), removing the PACE (Preliminary Advanced Colloids Experiment) hardware, installed on 10/7, and re-installed a CVB (Constrained Vapor Bubble) module instead. [PACE is a Technology experiment, designed to investigate the capability of conducting high magnification colloid experiments with the LMM (Light Microscopy Module) for determining the minimum size particles which can be resolved. Today’s activity steps included opening the rack doors, rotating the LMM SBA (Spindle Bracket Assembly) from the Operate to Service position, removing the PACE hardware from the LMM X-Y Stage and installing the AFC front door. The CVB (Constrained Vapor Bubble Module) was then installed onto the LMM X-Y stage in preparation for testing, the SBA rotated back to Operate, the upper & lower FCF doors were closed, and POIC (Payload Operations & Integration Center) was notified that the rack was ready for RPC (Remote Power Controller) activation.]

FE-1 Kaleri & FE-2 Skripochka performed the periodic 2-hr checkout of the Russian MedOps MO-2 protocol’s Kardiomed equipment and its TLM (telemetry) comm cable connections via BITS2-12 onboard telemetry measurement system, downlinking test data to RGS (Russian Groundsite) at ~1:30pm EDT via VHF. [Kardiomed (Cardiomed) uses ECG (Electrocardiograph) and blood pressure measurements, with a five-electrode Holter harness that reads dynamic (in motion) heart function from two leads over a span of time and records data on the “Kardioregistrator 90205” unit.]

FE-6 Walker worked her way through a long list of tasks, including –

* Deploying four passive FMK (Formaldehyde Monitoring Kit) sampling assemblies in the Lab (at bay P3, below CEVIS) and SM (at the most forward handrail, on panel 307) for two days, to catch any atmospheric formaldehyde on a collector substrate for subsequent analysis on the ground [Two monitors each are usually attached side by side, preferably in an orientation with their faces perpendicular to the direction of air flow],

* Temporarily removing the T2/COLBERT handrail in Node-3 to make room, then collecting a return-to-ground coolant fluid sample from the ITCS MTL (Internal Thermal Control System Medium Temperature Loop) after clean-flushing the adapter,

* Performing the regular 30-day inspection of the AED (Automated External Defibrillator) in the CHeCS (Crew Health Care Systems) rack [AED is a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient. It then can treat them through defibrillation, i.e., the application of electrical therapy which stops the arrhythmia, allowing the heart to re-establish an effective rhythm], Shannon Walker started another sampling run with the EHS GC/DMS (Environmental Health Systems Gas Chromatograph / Differential Mobility Spectrometer); deactivating the system ~5 hrs later [this was the 32nd session with the GC/DMS unit #1004, after the previous instrument (#1002) was used for approximately 100 runs. Also known as AQM (Air Quality Monitor), the system is controlled with “Sionex” expert software from the SSC-12 laptop. The AQM demonstrates COTS (Commercial Off-the-Shelf) technology for identifying volatile organic compounds, similar to the VOA (Volatile Organics Analyzer). This evaluation will continue over the course of several months as it helps to eventually certify the GC/DMS as nominal CHeCS (Crew Health Care Systems) hardware],

* Inspecting the CDRA (Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly) J21 connector at the Node-3 AR (Air Revitalization Rack) to ensure safe connection prior to Sabatier/Node-3 CDRA activation,

* Conducting the periodic inspection of the PEPs (Portable Emergency Provisions), checking PFEs (Portable Fire Extinguishers, PBAs (Portable Breathing Apparatus), EHTKs (Extension Hose Tee Kits) and QDMA (Quick-Don Mask Assembly) harnesses, and

* Changing out the 9V batteries in all four CQs (Crew Quarters in Node-2.

Oleg performed air sampling, employing the Russian AK-1M adsorber in the SM and FGB, as well as the IPD-CO Draeger tubes, on a cartridge belt with a pump, to check the SM cabin air for CO (Carbon Monoxide).

Fyodor completed a major IFM (Inflight Maintenance) of several hours in the FGB (Functional Cargo Block), replacing the #4 800A battery of its PSS (Power Supply System, Russian: SES/sistema elektrosnabzheniya) with a spare AB unit. Also replaced with new spares were the PTAB-2 current converter, BUPT-2 control unit and MIRT-3 charge/discharge current integrator. The old parts were prepared for disposal on Progress 39P. [The ZRU charge/discharge unit #4 was deactivated by TsUP/Moscow beforehand and later reactivated. The new battery #4 is currently being conditioned in Cycle mode. This restores the full set of six FGB batteries to operation.]

Kaleri, Skripochka & Yurchikhin took the monthly O-OHA (On-Orbit Hearing Assessment) test, a 30-min NASA environmental health systems examination to assess the efficacy of acoustic countermeasures, using a special software application on the MEC (Medical Equipment Computer) laptop. [The O-OHA audiography test involves minimum audibility measurements for each ear over a wide range of frequencies (0.25-10 kHz) and sound pressure levels, with the crewmembers using individual-specific Prophonics earphones, new Bose ANC headsets (delivered on 30P) and the SLM (sound level meter). To conduct the testing, the experimenter is supported by special EarQ software on the MEC, featuring an up/down-arrow-operated slider for each test frequency that the crewmember moves to the lowest sound pressure level at which the tone can still be heard. The baseline test is required not later than about Flight Day 14 for each new Expedition and is then generally performed once per month. Note: There has been temporary hearing deficits documented on some U.S. and Russian crewmembers, all of which recovered to pre-mission levels.]

Alex had ~30 min set aside for an inspection of the regulator of Progress 37P’s SrPK air supply tankage system.

Working briefly in MRM2 “Poisk” module, Yurchikhin connected a cap on the ASP Network Connections Adapter.

Scott Kelly collected the periodic cabin air samples with the GSC (Grab Sample Container) in the center of the SM (Service Module), JPM (JEM Pressurized Module) & Lab (near the AQM/Air Quality Monitor),

Doug Wheelock completed the weekly 10-min. CWC (Contingency Water Container) inventory as part of the on-going WRM (Water Recovery & Management) assessment of onboard water supplies. Updated “cue cards” based on the crew’s water calldowns are sent up every other week for recording changes. [The current card (25-0001) lists 122 CWCs (2,778.1 L total) for the five types of water identified on board: 1. technical water (24 CWCs with 998.2 L, for Elektron electrolysis, incl. 712.7 L in 17 bags containing Wautersia bacteria, 134.2 L in 3 clean bags for contingency use, 128.3 L in 3 bags for flushing only with microbial filter, and 23.0 L in 1 bag for flushing only; 2. potable water (4 CWCs with 171.8 L, of which 1 bag with 42.5 L is to be used with microbial filter & 129.3 L in 3 bags are good for contingency use; 3. iodinated water (84 CWCs with 1,548.2 L for reserve; 4. condensate water (37.7 L in 2 bags, with 6.3 L to be used only for OGA, plus 6 empty bags; and 5. waste/EMU dump and other (22.2 L, in 1 CWC with 20.2 L from hose/pump flush & 1 bag with 2.00 L from EMU dump). Wautersia bacteria are typical water-borne microorganisms that have been seen previously in ISS water sources. These isolates pose no threat to human health.]

Fyodor & Oleg joined in another handover activity by undertaking the periodic transfer of condensate water to an RS (Russian Segment) EDV container for the periodic (about twice a month) replenishing of the Elektron’s water supply for electrolysis into oxygen & (waste) hydrogen, filling the designated KOV (condensate water) EDV container from a CWC. When filled, the EDV was connected to the BPK transfer pump for processing through the BKO water purification (multifiltration) unit. [The ~40-minute procedure is specially designed to prevent air bubbles larger than ~10 mm from getting into the Elektron’s BZh Liquid Unit where they could cause Elektron shutdown. If bubbles are detected in the EDV, they are separated (by centrifugation) into another EDV. BKO contains five purification columns to rid the condensate of dissolved mineral and organic impurities. It has a service lifetime of ~450 liters throughput. The water needs to be purified for proper electrolysis in the Elektron O2 generator.]

FE-5 & FE-2 also conducted the routine daily servicing of the SOZh system (Environment Control & Life Support System, ECLSS) in the SM. [Regular daily SOZh maintenance consists, among else, of checking the ASU toilet facilities, replacement of the KTO & KBO solid waste containers and replacement of EDV-SV waste water and EDV-U urine containers.]

Skripochka afterwards completed the daily IMS (Inventory Management System) maintenance by updating/editing its standard “delta file” including stowage locations, for the regular weekly automated export/import to its three databases on the ground (Houston, Moscow, Baikonur).

CDR Wheelock finished up with the Sabatier reactor installation into the OGA (Oxygen Generation Assembly) Rack, making final connections and removing/stowing the tools used. First activation of the Sabatier is tentatively scheduled for next Monday. [For Sabatier to work, the OGA has to be functioning, with internal flows balanced.]

Working in support of the Sabatier reactor installation, Scott Kelly conducted the first (4-hr) part of OGS (Oxygen Generator System) flow balancing, first setting the OGA TCS (Oxygen Generation Assembly Thermal Control System) internal valves to “best guess” positions, then taking initial measurements of internal flow rates using the NIFM (Non-Intrusive Flow Meter). NIFM was then safed for the time being. [Purpose of these extended valve adjustments is to optimize the TCS flow in the presence of the newly-added Sabatier system.]

Fyodor prepared the equipment for a session with the periodic Russian MedOps test “Hematokrit” (MO-10), to be conducted tomorrow by Oleg, Alex & himself.

Before sleeptime tonight, Kaleri sets up the Russian MBI-12 payload and starts his first Sonokard experiment session, using a sports shirt from the Sonokard kit with a special device in the pocket for testing a new method for acquiring physiological data without using direct contact on the skin. Measurements are recorded on a data card for return to Earth. [Sonokard objectives are stated to (1) study the feasibility of obtaining the maximum of data through computer processing of records obtained overnight, (2) systematically record the crewmember’s physiological functions during sleep, (3) study the feasibility of obtaining real-time crew health data. Investigators believe that contactless acquisition of cardiorespiratory data over the night period could serve as a basis for developing efficient criteria for evaluating and predicting adaptive capability of human body in long-duration space flight.]

Also tonight, Wheels will be closing the protective window shutters in the Lab, Kibo laboratory & Node-3 Cupola, preparatory to the ATV PCE (Automated Transfer Vehicle Proximity Communications Equipment; Russian: MBRL) hardware test set for ~7:22pm, which requires attitude maneuvering. [US attitude control authority handover to RS: 6:37pm; return to US CMG: 8:00pm.]

Alex, Oleg & Scott again had an hour each set aside for crew onboard orientation plus time for adaptation as required. [During the first two weeks after their arrival, a new ISS crew will have 1 hour a day (or more if needed) to adjust to living in space.]

A new addition to the discretionary US “job jar” task list for Wheels is the continuation of the retrieval, gathering & configuring of EVA (Extravehicular Activity) tools & equipment for the ULF5 spacewalks. More to come.

At ~8:45am EDT, Scott had his weekly PMC (Private Medical Conference), via S- & Ku-band audio/video.

At ~10:40am, Wheelock, Walker & Kelly supported a PAO TV event, being interviewed for the BBC/British Broadcasting Company’s “Live Stargazing” Series by Prof. Brian Cox.

At ~2:15pm, Shannon had her regular IMS stowage conference with Houston stowage specialists.

The crew worked out on today’s 2-hr physical exercise protocol on the CEVIS cycle ergometer with vibration isolation (CDR), TVIS treadmill with vibration isolation & stabilization (FE-1, FE-2, FE-5), ARED advanced resistive exercise device (CDR, FE-3, FE-5, FE-6), T2/COLBERT advanced treadmill (FE-6) and VELO ergometer bike with bungee cord load trainer (FE-1, FE-2). [T2 snubber arm inspection is no longer needed after every T2 session but must be done after the last T2 session of the day.]

ATV PCE Checkout: The ATV PCE (Automated Transfer Vehicle Proximity Communications Equipment; Russian: MBRL) is being checked out by ESA/TsUP today, today and tomorrow, to verify proper operation of the PCE WAL3 (Low Gain) and WAS2 (Medium Gain) antennas as well as the PCE equipment internal to the SM. The WAL3 & WAS2 antennas are prime for ATV Rendezvous operations. As part of the checkout, the PCE equipment is activated, directed to perform a self-test and switched to CW (Carrier Wave) mode. After an attitude maneuver that maximizes coverage for the antenna(s) being tested, the PCE transmits a beacon to ESA’s Maspalomas (MAS) and Villafranca (VIL) Ground Stations. The ground stations track the ISS, check that the CW signal is received, verify the proper RF power level, and record the evolution of the RF power level over time. For the duration of the maneuvers, Lab, JPM and Node-3 Cupola windows are shuttered and the SARJ (Solar Alpha Rotary Joint) is feathered (arrays facing RS thrusters edge-on). Today’s test begins ~6:47pm EDT with attitude control handover to Russian MCS (Motion Control System), followed by maneuver to WAS-2 antenna test attitude at 6:52pm, maneuver to LVLH TEA (Local Vertical Local Horizontal Torque Equilibrium) and return of attitude control to US CMGs at ~8:26pm.

CEO (Crew Earth Observation) photo targets uplinked for today were Kingman Reef, Hawaiian Island chain (this 4 mile-long, V-shaped atoll will have appeared under the ISS track shortly after the pass over Johnston Island. Handheld imagery is a major component in the effort to map coral reefs worldwide), Palmyra Atoll, central Pacific (Palmyra is one of the Northern Line Islands of the equatorial North Pacific Ocean which lie just over a thousand miles south of the Hawaiian Islands. This oddly shaped atoll has an area of 4.6 square miles [12 km], and it consists of an extensive reef, two shallow lagoons, and some 50 sand and reef-rock islets and bars covered with vegetation with a small air strip on the north side. Trying for detailed mapping views of the reef structures of this atoll), and Apia, Samoa (Apia is the capital and largest city of Samoa. It is located on the central north coast of Upolu, Samoa’s second largest island. The population in 2006 was 37,708).

ISS Orbit (as of this morning, 4:32am EDT [= epoch])
Mean altitude – 353.1 km
Apogee height – 358.4 km
Perigee height – 347.9 km
Period — 91.60 min.
Inclination (to Equator) — 51.65 deg
Eccentricity — 0.0007783
Solar Beta Angle — 24.5 deg (magnitude increasing)
Orbits per 24-hr. day — 15.72
Mean altitude loss in the last 24 hours – 93 m
Revolutions since FGB/Zarya launch (Nov. 98) – 68,221.

Significant Events Ahead (all dates Eastern Time and subject to change):
————–Six-crew operations————-
10/26/10 — Progress M-05M/37P undock
10/27/10 — Progress M-08M/40P launch
10/29/10 — Progress M-08M/40P docking
11/01/10 — STS-133/Discovery launch (ULF5 – ELC4, PMM) ~4:40pm EDT
11/03/10 — STS-133/Discovery docking ~1:13pm EDT
11/07/10 — ————–Daylight Saving Time ends———–
11/10/10 — STS-133/Discovery undock ~5:40am EST
11/12/10 — STS-133/Discovery landing (KSC) ~10:39am EST
11/12/10 — Russian EVA-26
11/17/10 — Russian EVA-27
11/30/10 — Soyuz TMA-19/23S undock/landing (End of Increment 25)
————–Three-crew operations————-
12/13/10 — Soyuz TMA-20/25S launch – Kondratyev (CDR-27)/Coleman/Nespoli
12/15/10 — Soyuz TMA-20/25S docking
————–Six-crew operations————-
12/20/10 — Progress M-07M/39P undock
01/24/11 — Progress M-08M/40P undock
01/28/11 — Progress M-09M/41P launch
01/31/11 — Progress M-09M/41P docking
02/xx/11 — Russian EVA-28
02/15/11 — ATV-2 “Johannes Kepler” launch
02/27/11 — STS-134/Endeavour (ULF6 – ELC3, AMS-02)
03/16/11 — Soyuz TMA-01M/24S undock/landing (End of Increment 26)
————–Three-crew operations————-
03/20/11 — Soyuz TMA-21/26S launch – A. Borisienko (CDR-28)/R.Garan/A.Samokutayev
03/22/11 — Soyuz TMA-21/26S docking
————–Six-crew operations————-
04/26/11 — Progress M-09M/41P undock
04/27/11 — Progress M-10M/42P launch
04/29/11 — Progress M-10M/42P docking
05/xx/11 — Russian EVA-29
05/16/11 — Soyuz TMA-20/25S undock/landing (End of Increment 27)
————–Three-crew operations————-
05/30/11 — Soyuz TMA-22/27S launch – M. Fossum (CDR-29)/S. Furukawa/S. Volkov
06/01/11 — Soyuz TMA-22/27S docking
————–Six-crew operations————-
06/21/11 — Progress M-11M/43P launch
06/23/11 — Progress M-11M/43P docking
08/29/11 — Progress M-11M/43P undocking
08/30/11 — Progress M-12M/44P launch
09/01/11 — Progress M-12M/44P docking
09/16/11 – Soyuz TMA-21/26S undock/landing (End of Increment 28)
————–Three-crew operations————-
09/30/11 — Soyuz TMA-23/28S launch – D.Burbank (CDR-30)/A.Shkaplerov/A.Ivanishin
10/02/11 – Soyuz TMA-23/28S docking
————–Six-crew operations————-
10/20/11 — Progress M-10M/42P undocking
10/21/11 — Progress M-13M/45P launch
10/23/11 — Progress M-13M/45P docking
11/16/11 — Soyuz TMA-22/27S undock/landing (End of Increment 29)
————–Three-crew operations————-
11/30/11 — Soyuz TMA-24/29S launch – O.Kononenko (CDR-31)/A.Kuipers/D.Pettit
12/02/11 — Soyuz TMA-24/29S docking
————–Six-crew operations—————-
12/??/11 — 3R Multipurpose Laboratory Module (MLM) w/ERA – on Proton.
12/26/11 — Progress M-13M/45P undock
03/14/12 — Soyuz TMA-23/28S undock/landing (End of Increment 30)
————–Three-crew operations————-
03/26/12 — Soyuz TMA-25/30S launch – G.Padalka (CDR-32)/J.Acaba/K.Valkov
03/28/12 — Soyuz TMA-25/30S docking
————–Six-crew operations—————-
05/15/12 — Soyuz TMA-24/29S undock/landing (End of Increment 31)
————–Three-crew operations————-
05/29/12 – Soyuz TMA-26/31S launch – S.Williams (CDR-33)/Y.Malenchenko/A.Hoshide
05/31/12 – Soyuz TMA-26/31S docking
————–Six-crew operations—————-
09/09/12 — Soyuz TMA-25/30S undock/landing (End of Increment 32)
————–Three-crew operations————-
09/23/12 — Soyuz TMA-27/32S launch – K.Ford (CDR-34)/O. Novitskiy/E.Tarelkin
09/25/12 – Soyuz TMA-27/32S docking
————–Six-crew operations————-
10/07/12 — Soyuz TMA-26/31S undock/landing (End of Increment 33)
————–Three-crew operations————-
11/xx/12 — Soyuz TMA-28/33S launch – C.Hadfield (CDR-35)/T.Mashburn/R.Romanenko
11/xx/12 – Soyuz TMA-28/33S docking
————–Six-crew operations————-
03/xx/12 — Soyuz TMA-27/32S undock/landing (End of Increment 34)
————–Three-crew operations————-
03/xx/12 – Soyuz TMA-29/34S launch.
03/xx/12 – Soyuz TMA-29/34S docking
————–Six-crew operations————-

SpaceRef staff editor.