- Press Release
- Sep 29, 2022
NASA Hubble Space Telescope Daily Report #4934
HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE DAILY REPORT #4934
Continuing to Collect World Class Science
PERIOD COVERED: 5am September 18 – 5am September 21, 2009 (DOY 261/09:00z-264/09:00z)
NICMOS Post-SAA Calibration – CR Persistence Part 6
This is a new procedure proposed to alleviate the CR-persistence problem of NICMOS. Dark frames will be obtained immediately upon exiting the SAA contour 23, and every time a NICMOS exposure is scheduled within 50 minutes of coming out of the SAA. The darks will be obtained in parallel in all three NICMOS cameras. The post-SAA darks will be non-standard reference files available to users with a ‘Use After’ date/time mark. The keyword ‘UseAfter=date/time’ will also be added to the header of each post-SAA dark frame. The keyword must be populated with the time, in addition to the date, because HST crosses the SAA ~8 times per day, so each post-SAA dark will need to have the appropriate time specified, for users to identify the ones they need. Both the raw and processed images will be archived as post-SAA darks. Generally we expect that all NICMOS science/calibration observations started within 50 minutes of leaving an SAA will need such MAPs to remove the CR persistence from the science images. Each observation will need its own CRMAP, as different SAA passages leave different imprints on the NICMOS detectors.
Extended Dark Monitoring
This program takes a series of darks to obtain darks (including amplifier glow, dark current, and shading profiles) for all three cameras in the read-out sequences used in Cycle 17. A set of 12 orbits will be observed every two months for a total of 72 orbits for a 12 month Cycle 17. This is a continuation of Cycle 16 program 11330 scaled down by ~80%.
The first orbit (Visit A0) should be scheduled in the NICMOS SMOV after the DC Transfer Test (11406) and at least 36h before the Filter Wheel Test (11407). Data download using fast track.
The following 28 orbits (visit A1-N2) should be scheduled AFTER the SMOV Proposal 11407 (Filter Wheel Test). This is done in order to monitor the dark current following an adjustment of the NCS set-point. These visits should be executed until the final temperature is reached during SMOV.
IR Dark Current Monitor
Analyses of ground test data showed that dark current signals are more reliably removed from science data using darks taken with the same exposure sequences as the science data, than with a single dark current image scaled by desired exposure time. Therefore, dark current images must be collected using all sample sequences that will be used in science observations. These observations will be used to monitor changes in the dark current of the WFC3-IR channel on a day-to-day basis, and to build calibration dark current ramps for each of the sample sequences to be used by GOs in Cycle 17. For each sample sequence/array size combination, a median ramp will be created and delivered to the calibration database system (CDBS).
UVIS Detector Linearity
This proposal will measure the in-orbit linear response of the UVIS detectors by sampling over the response curve through saturation. This program uses exposures of a standard star field (NGC 1850) to measure the absolute values, and exposures of a tungsten lamp to measure positional variations in response, following a similar procedure as the ground tests.
IR Internal Flat Fields
This program is the same as 11433 (SMOV) and depends on the completion of the IR initial alignment (Program 11425). This version contains three instances of 37 internal orbits: to be scheduled early, middle, and near the end of Cycle 17, in order to use the entire 110-orbit allocation.
In this test, we will study the stability and structure of the IR channel flat field images through all filter elements in the WFC3-IR channel. Flats will be monitored, i.e. to capture any temporal trends in the flat fields and delta flats produced. High signal observations will provide a map of the pixel-to-pixel flat field structure, as well as identify the positions of any dust particles.
UVIS Internal Flats
This proposal will be used to assess the stability of the flat field structure for the UVIS detector throughout the 15 months of Cycle 17. The data will be used to generate on- orbit updates for the delta-flat field reference files used in the WFC3 calibration pipeline, if significant changes in the flat structure are seen.
Cycle 17: UVIS Bowtie Monitor
Ground testing revealed an intermittent hysteresis type effect in the UVIS detector (both CCDs) at the level of ~1%, lasting hours to days. Initially found via an unexpected bowtie-shaped feature in flatfield ratios, subsequent lab tests on similar e2v devices have since shown that it is also present as simply an overall offset across the entire CCD, i.e., a QE offset without any discernable pattern. These lab tests have further revealed that overexposing the detector to count levels several times full well fills the traps and effectively neutralizes the bowtie. Each visit in this proposal acquires a set of three 3×3 binned internal flatfields: the first unsaturated image will be used to detect any bowtie, the second, highly exposed image will neutralize the bowtie if it is present, and the final image will allow for verification that the bowtie is gone.
WFC3 UVIS CCD Daily Monitor
The behavior of the WFC3 UVIS CCD will be monitored daily with a set of full-frame, four-amp bias and dark frames. A smaller set of 2Kx4K subarray biases are acquired at less frequent intervals throughout the cycle to support subarray science observations. The internals from this proposal, along with those from the anneal procedure (Proposal 11909), will be used to generate the necessary superbias and superdark reference files for the calibration pipeline (CDBS).
CCD Daily Monitor (Part 1)
This program comprises basic tests for measuring the read noise and dark current of the ACS WFC and for tracking the growth of hot pixels. The recorded frames are used to create bias and dark reference images for science data reduction and calibration. This program will be executed four days per week (Mon, Wed, Fri, Sun) for the duration of Cycle 17. To facilitate scheduling, this program is split into three proposals. This proposal covers 352 orbits (22 weeks) from 31 August 2009 to 31 January 2010.
CCD Bias Monitor-Part 1
The purpose of this proposal is to monitor the bias in the 1×1, 1×2, 2×1, and 2×2 bin settings at gain=1, and 1×1 at gain = 4, to build up high-S/N superbiases and track the evolution of hot columns.
CCD Dark Monitor Part 1
The purpose of this proposal is to monitor the darks for the STIS CCD.
An Astrometric Calibration of Population II Distance Indicators
In 2002, HST produced a highly precise parallax for RR Lyrae. That measurement resulted in an absolute magnitude, M(V)= 0.61+/-0.11, a useful result, judged by the over ten refereed citations each year since. It is, however, unsatisfactory to have the direct, parallax-based, distance scale of Population II variables based on a single star. We propose, therefore, to obtain the parallaxes of four additional RR Lyrae stars and two Population II Cepheids, or W Vir stars. The Population II Cepheids lie with the RR Lyrae stars on a common K-band Period-Luminosity relation. Using these parallaxes to inform that relationship, we anticipate a zero-point error of 0.04 magnitude. This result should greatly strengthen confidence in the Population II distance scale and increase our understanding of RR Lyrae star and Pop. II Cepheid astrophysics.
The Architecture of Exoplanetary Systems
Are all planetary systems coplanar? Concordance cosmogony makes that prediction. It is, however, a prediction of extrasolar planetary system architecture as yet untested by direct observation for main sequence stars other than the Sun. To provide such a test, we propose to carry out FGS astrometric studies on four stars hosting seven companions. Our understanding of the planet formation process will grow as we match not only system architecture, but formed planet mass and true distance from the primary with host star characteristics for a wide variety of host stars and exoplanet masses.
We propose that a series of FGS astrometric observations with demonstrated 1 millisecond of arc per-observation precision can establish the degree of coplanarity and component true masses for four extrasolar systems: HD 202206 (brown dwarf+planet); HD 128311 (planet+planet), HD 160691 = mu Arae (planet+planet), and HD 222404AB = gamma Cephei (planet+star). In each case the companion is identified as such by assuming that the minimum mass is the actual mass. For the last target, a known stellar binary system, the companion orbit is stable only if coplanar with the AB binary orbit.
The Ages of Globular Clusters and the Population II Distance Scale
Globular clusters are the oldest objects in the universe whose age can be accurately determined. The dominant error in globular cluster age determinations is the uncertain Population II distance scale. We propose to use FGS 1R to obtain parallaxes with an accuracy of 0.2 milliarcsecond for 9 main sequence stars with [Fe/H] < -1.5. This will determine the absolute magnitude of these stars with accuracies of 0.04 to 0.06mag. This data will be used to determine the distance to 24 metal-poor globular clusters using main sequence fitting. These distances (with errors of 0.05 mag) will be used to determine the ages of globular clusters using the luminosity of the subgiant branch as an age indicator. This will yield absolute ages with an accuracy of 5%, about a factor of two improvement over current estimates. Coupled with existing parallaxes for more metal-rich stars, we will be able to accurately determine the age for globular clusters over a wide range of metallicities in order to study the early formation history of the Milky Way and provide an independent estimate of the age of the universe. The Hipparcos database contains only 1 star with [Fe/H] < -1.4 and an absolute magnitude error less than 0.18 mag which is suitable for use in main sequence fitting. Previous attempts at main sequence fitting to metal-poor globular clusters have had to rely on theoretical calibrations of the color of the main sequence. Our HST parallax program will remove this source of possible systematic error and yield distances to metal- poor globular clusters which are significantly more accurate than possible with the current parallax data. The HST parallax data will have errors which are 10 times smaller than the current parallax data. Using the HST parallaxes, we will obtain main sequence fitting distances to 11 globular clusters which contain over 500 RR Lyrae stars. This will allow us to calibrate the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae stars, a commonly used Population II distance indicator. ACS/WFC3 11670 The Host Environments of Type Ia Supernovae in the SDSS Survey The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Supernova Survey has discovered nearly 500 type Ia supernovae and created a large, unique, and uniform sample of these cosmological tools. As part of a comprehensive study of the supernova hosts, we propose to obtain Hubble ACS images of a large fraction of these galaxies. Integrated colors and spectra will be measured from the ground, but we require high-resolution HST imaging to provide accurate morphologies and color information at the site of the explosion. This information is essential in determining the systematic effects of population age on type Ia supernova luminosities and improving their reliability in measuring dark energy. Recent studies suggest two populations of type Ia supernovae: a class that explodes promptly after star-formation and one that is delayed by billions of years. Measuring the star-formation rate at the site of the supernova from colors in the HST images may be the best way to differentiate between these classes. WFC3/UVIS 11594 A WFC3 Grism Survey for Lyman Limit Absorption at z=2 We propose to conduct a spectroscopic survey of Lyman limit absorbers at redshifts 1.8 < z < 2.5, using WFC3 and the G280 grism. This proposal intends to complete an approved Cycle 15 SNAP program (10878), which was cut short due to the ACS failure. We have selected 64 quasars at 2.3 < z < 2.6 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Spectroscopic Quasar Sample, for which no BAL signature is found at the QSO redshift and no strong metal absorption lines are present at z > 2.3 along the lines of sight. The survey has three main
observational goals. First, we will determine the redshift frequency dn/dz of the LLS over the column density range 16.0 < log(NHI) < 20.3 cm^-2. Second, we will measure the column density frequency distribution f(N) for the partial Lyman limit systems (PLLS) over the column density range 16.0 < log(NHI) < 17.5 cm^-2. Third, we will identify those sightlines which could provide a measurement of the primordial D/H ratio. By carrying out this survey, we can also help place meaningful constraints on two key quantities of cosmological relevance. First, we will estimate the amount of metals in the LLS using the f(N), and ground based observations of metal line transitions. Second, by determining f(N) of the PLLS, we can constrain the amplitude of the ionizing UV background at z~2 to a greater precision. This survey is ideal for a snapshot observing program, because the on-object integration times are all well below 30 minutes, and follow-up observations from the ground require minimal telescope time due to the QSO sample being bright. WFC3/UVIS 11559 Jovian Upheaval and Its Impact on Vortices We propose observations of Jupiter with global coverage at high resolution to quantify changes in its atmosphere during and following the global upheaval. Only HST has the capability to obtain images with enough spatial resolution and contrast to extract velocity fields (we will use our newly developed technique to accomplish this), and with WFC3 we can image Jupiter in its entirety in a single exposure. We are in particular interested in the Red Oval BA: Will the Oval be long lived, remain red, or turn white again, disappear? Both the merger of its precursors, and change in color has never before been witnessed. The Great Red Spot: This storm system appears to decrease in size and has become rounder, both as derived from its associated cloud deck, but also from its potential vorticity, a more dynamically-relevant quantity. How will the GRS evolve? Will it swallow the new vortices detected in amateur images at this same latitude band? How will this effect the potential vorticity? In addition, we hope to understand disturbances and stagnation points, both of which were detected during the present global upheaval: are these cyclonic regions, can they spawn anticyclones (as suggested by amateur images)? COS/NUV/FUV/WFC3/UVIS/IR 11534 COS-GTO: Atmosphere of a Transiting Planet COS observations of a transiting planet at different orbital locations will be useful in identifying the chemical content, size, temperature, and flows in the atmosphere of a transiting planet. COS/NUV/FUV 11487 COS FUV Internal/External Wavelength Scales Observe external radial velocity standard targets in Time-Tag (Flash=Yes) mode with all grating and central wavelength combinations. The purpose is to obtain zero point offsets for the wavelength scale (internal wavecal lamp scale to external standard wavelength scale) and PSA dispersion relations for all central wavelengths. Following this determination, adjustments of the nominal science target spectral range for each grating and central wavelength combination will be made via SMS-patchable constant for nominal OSM1 positions corresponding to each central wavelength. Subsequent to this modification of the wavelength scale (and its verification via analysis of COS30 – Program 11488), FUV science-related operations and wavelength- dependent EROs can commence. COS/NUV 11471 COS NUV Imaging Acquisition Algorithm Verification The purpose of this proposal is to verify the ability of the COS FSW to place an isolated point source at the center of the aperture, both for the BOA and PSA, and for Mirror A and Mirror B. The various options for target centering should be exercised and shown to work properly. This test is for acquisitions in imaging mode only. Acquisitions using dispersed light are tested in separate SMOV activities. NIC1/NIC2/NIC3/S/C 11407 NICMOS Filter Wheel Test This is an engineering test (described in SMOV4 Activity Description NICMOS-04) to verify the aliveness, functionality, operability, and electro-mechanical calibration of the NICMOS filter wheel motors and assembly after NCS restart in SMOV4. This test has been designed to obviate concerns over possible deformation or breakage of the filter wheel “soda-straw” shafts due to excess rotational drag torque and/or bending moments which may be imparted due to changes in the dewar metrology from warm-up/cool- down. This test should be executed after the NCS (and filter wheel housing) has reached and approximately equilibrated to its nominal operating temperature. WFC3/ACS/IR 11359 Panchromatic WFC3 Survey of Galaxies at Intermediate z: Early Release Science Program for Wide Field Camera 3. The unique panchromatic capabilities of WFC3 will be used to survey the structure and evolution of galaxies at the peak of the galaxy assembly epoch. Deep ultraviolet and near-IR imaging and slitless spectroscopy of existing deep multi-color ACS fields will be used to gauge star-formation and the growth of stellar mass as a function of morphology, structure and surrounding density in the critical epoch 1 < z < 4. Images in the F225W, F275W, and F336W filters will identify galaxies at z < 1.5 from their UV continuum breaks, and provide star-formation indicators tied directly to both local and z > 3 populations. Deep near-IR (F125W and F160W) images will probe the stellar mass function well below 10^9 Msun for mass-complete samples. Lastly, the WFC3 slitless UV and near-IR grisms will be used to measure redshifts and star-formation rates from H- alpha and rest-frame UV continuum slope. This WFC3 ERS program will survey one 4 x 2 mosaic for a total area of 50 square arcminutes to 5-sigma depths of m_AB = 27 in most filters from the mid-UV through the near-IR.
This multicolor high spatial resolution data set will allow the user to gauge the growth of galaxies through star-formation and merging. High precision photometric and low- resolution spectroscopic redshifts will allow accurate determinations of the faint-end of the luminosity and mass functions, and will shed light on merging and tidal disruption of stellar and gaseous disks. The WFC3 images will also allow detailed studies of the internal structure of galaxies, and the distribution of young and old stellar populations. This program will demonstrate the unique power of WFC3 by applying its many diverse modes and full panchromatic capability to a forefront problem in astrophysics.
Distances to Eclipsing M Dwarf Binaries
We propose HST FGS observations to measure accurate distances of 5 nearby M dwarf eclipsing binary systems, from which model-independent luminosities can be calculated. These objects have either poor or no existing parallax measurements. FGS parallax determinations for these systems, with their existing dynamic masses determined to better than 0.5%, would serve as model-independent anchor points for the low-mass end of the mass-luminosity diagram.
Revealing the Physical Nature of Infrared Luminous Galaxies at 0.3< z<2.7 Using HST and Spitzer We aim to determine physical properties of IR luminous galaxies at 0.3< z<2.7 by requesting coordinated HST/NIC2 and MIPS 70um observations of a unique, 24um flux- limited sample with complete Spitzer mid-IR spectroscopy. The 150 sources investigated in this program have S(24um) > 0.8mJy and their mid-IR spectra have already provided the majority targets with spectroscopic redshifts (0.3< z<2.7). The proposed 150~orbits of NIC2 and 66~hours of MIPS 70um will provide the physical measurements of the light distribution at the rest-frame ~8000A and better estimates of the bolometric luminosity. Combining these parameters together with the rich suite of spectral diagnostics from the mid-IR spectra, we will (1) measure how common mergers are among LIRGs and ULIRGs at 0.3< z<2.7, and establish if major mergers are the drivers of z>1 ULIRGs, as in the local Universe, (2) study the co-evolution of star formation and blackhole accretion by investigating the relations between the fraction of starburst/AGN measured from mid-IR spectra vs. HST morphologies, L(bol) and z, and (3) obtain the current best estimates of the far-IR emission, thus L(bol) for this sample, and establish if the relative contribution of mid-to-far IR dust emission is correlated with morphology (resolved vs. unresolved).
FLIGHT OPERATIONS SUMMARY:
Significant Spacecraft Anomalies: (The following are preliminary reports of potential non-nominal performance that will be investigated.)
12014 – GSAcq(2,1,1) scheduled at 261/16:17:51z failed to RGA Hold (gyro control) with Search Radius Limit Exceeded on FGS-2 at 261/16:23:06z.
Observations affected: WFC3 111 – 114, Proposal ID# 11559
12015 – GSAcq (1,2,1) scheduled from 263/04:26:41z – 04:33:41z resulted in Fine Lock Back-up (2,0,2) at 263/04:31:43z using FGS 2
Observations possibly affected: WFC3 165 – 166, Proposal ID# 11594.
COMPLETED OPS REQUEST:
18706-0 – Set up Tasking orders for NICMOS FW test @ 261/1551z
18707-0 – Configure Tasking Orders after FW test EDD dumps completed @ 261/2312z
18708-1 – Enable NICMOS Filter Wheel flag to continue test @ 262/1742z
COMPLETED OPS NOTES: (None)
FGS GSAcq 24 23
FGS REAcq 17 17
OBAD with Maneuver 25 25
SIGNIFICANT EVENTS: (None)