Status Report

NASA Hubble Space Telescope Daily Report #4686

By SpaceRef Editor
September 2, 2008
Filed under , ,


Continuing to collect World Class Science

PERIOD COVERED: 5am August 29 – 5am September 2, 2008 (DOY


NIC1/NIC2/NIC3 11820

NICMOS Post-SAA Calibration – CR Persistence Part 7

Internals for CR persistence

WFPC2 11797

Supplemental WFPC2 CYCLE 16 Intflat Linearity Check and Filter Rotation
Anomaly Monitor

Supplemental observations to 11029, to cover period from Aug 08 to SM4.
Intflat observations will be taken to provide a linearity check: the
linearity test consists of a series of intflats in F555W, in each gain and
each shutter. A combination of intflats, visflats, and earthflats will be
used to check the repeatability of filter wheel motions. (Intflat sequences
tied to decons, visits 1-18 in prop 10363, have been moved to the cycle 15
decon proposal 11022 for easier scheduling.)

Note: long-exposure WFPC2 intflats must be scheduled during ACS anneals to
prevent stray light from the WFPC2 lamps from contaminating long ACS
external exposures.

Note: These are supplemental observations to cover June to SM4 (oct 8 ’08) +
6 months.

WFPC2 11795

WFPC2 Cycle 16 UV Earth Flats

Monitor flat field stability. This proposal obtains sequences of earth
streak flats to improve the quality of pipeline flat fields for the WFPC2 UV
filter set. These Earth flats will complement the UV earth flat data
obtained during cycles 8-15.

WFPC2 11794

Cycle 16 Visible Earth Flats

This proposal monitors flatfield stability. This proposal obtains sequences
of Earth streak flats to construct high quality flat fields for the WFPC2
filter set. These flat fields will allow mapping of the OTA illumination
pattern and will be used in conjunction with previous internal and external
flats to generate new pipeline superflats. These Earth flats will complement
the Earth flat data obtained during cycles 4-15.

WFPC2 11793

WFPC2 Cycle 16 Internal Monitor

This calibration proposal is the Cycle 15 routine internal monitor for
WFPC2, to be run weekly to monitor the health of the cameras. A variety of
internal exposures are obtained in order to provide a monitor of the
integrity of the CCD camera electronics in both bays (both gain 7 and gain
15 — to test stability of gains and bias levels), a test for quantum
efficiency in the CCDs, and a monitor for possible buildup of contaminants
on the CCD windows. These also provide raw data for generating annual
super-bias reference files for the calibration pipeline.

WFPC2 11553

HST Imaging of the Luminous Transient in NGC 300

A luminous optical transient discovered in the nearby (~2.2 Mpc) Sculptor
Group spiral NGC 300 in May 2008 appears to be a new member of the V838
Monocerotis class of stars that expand in a few weeks to become red
supergiants. Spectroscopic observations show that the NGC 300 OT is
categorically not a classical nova, supernova, or luminous blue variable. At
an absolute magnitude of -12.5, it is by far the brightest star at present
in NGC 300, but if it follows the pattern of V838 Mon and the similar object
M31 RV, it will fade away rapidly in about 3 months.

Before it fades, we propose to obtain WFPC2 images in order to locate the
position of the object to within a few milliarcsec. This will allow us to
identify the progenitor object, based on a superb set of pre-outburst ACS
and WFPC2 images of NGC 300 available in the archive. We also propose a
second observation in September 2008, in order to search for emergence of a
light echo similar to the spectacular one that surrounds V838 Mon. If a
light echo does appear, follow-up ACS polarimetry after SM4 offers the
possibility of a direct geometric distance determination, allowing a
fundamental calibration of the rich variety of standard candles that exist
in NGC 300 (Cepheids, red-giant tip, planetary nebulae, etc.).

NIC2 11548

NICMOS Imaging of Protostars in the Orion A Cloud: The Role of Environment
in Star Formation

We propose NICMOS observations of a sample of 252 protostars identified in
the Orion A cloud with the Spitzer Space Telescope. These observations will
image the scattered light escaping the protostellar envelopes, providing
information on the shapes of outflow cavities, the inclinations of the
protostars, and the overall morphologies of the envelopes. In addition, we
ask for Spitzer time to obtain 55-95 micron spectra of 75 of the protostars.
Combining these new data with existing 3.6 to 70 micron photometry and
forthcoming 5-40 micron spectra measured with the Spitzer Space Telescope,
we will determine the physical properties of the protostars such as envelope
density, luminosity, infall rate, and outflow cavity opening angle. By
examining how these properties vary with stellar density (i.e. clusters vs
groups vs isolation) and the properties of the surrounding molecular cloud;
we can directly measure how the surrounding environment influences
protostellar evolution, and consequently, the formation of stars and
planetary systems. Ultimately, this data will guide the development of a
theory of protostellar evolution.

NIC2 11547

Characterizing Pre-Main Sequence Populations in Stellar Associations of the
Large Magellanic Cloud

The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) offers an extremely rich sample of resolved
low-mass stars (below 1 Solar Mass) in the act of formation that has not
been explored sufficiently yet. These pre-main sequence (PMS) stars provide
a unique snapshot of the star formation process, as it is being recorded for
the last ~20 Myr, and they give important information on the low-mass
Initial Mass Function (IMF) of their host stellar systems. Studies of young,
rich LMC clusters like 30 Doradus are crowding limited, even at the angular
resolution facilitated by HST in the optical. To learn more about low-mass
PMS stars in the LMC, one has to study less crowded regions like young
stellar associations. We propose to employ WFPC2 to obtain deep photometry
(V ~ 25.5 mag) of four selected LMC stellar associations in order to perform
an original optical analysis of their red PMS and blue bright MS stellar
populations. With these observations we aim at a comprehensive study, which
will add substantial information on the most recent star formation and the
IMF in the LMC. The data reduction and analysis will be performed with a 2D
photometry software package especially developed by us for WFPC2 imaging of
extended stellar associations with variable background. Our targets have
been selected optimizing a combination of criteria, namely spatial
resolution, crowding, low extinction, nebular contamination, and background
confusion in comparison to other regions in the Local Group. Parallel NICMOS
imaging will provide additional information on near-infrared properties of
the stellar population in the regions surrounding these systems.

WFPC2 11544

The Dynamical Legacy of Star Formation

We propose to use WFPC2 to conduct a wide-field imaging survey of the young
cluster IC348. This program, in combination with archival HST observations,
will allow us to measure precise proper motions for individual cluster
members, characterizing the intra-cluster velocity dispersion and directly
studying the dynamical signatures of star formation and early cluster
evolution. Our projected astrometric precision (~1 mas in each epoch) will
allow us to calculate individual stellar velocities to unprecedented
precision (<0.5 mas/yr; <1 km/s) and directly relate these velocities to observed spatial substructure within the cluster. This survey will also allow us to probe small-scale star formation physics by searching for high-velocity stars ejected from decaying multiple systems, expanding our knowledge of multiplicity in dense environments, and identifying new substellar and planetary-mass cluster members based on kinematic membership tests.

WFPC2 11302

WFPC2 CYCLE 16 Standard Darks – Part III

This dark calibration program obtains dark frames every week in order to
provide data for the ongoing calibration of the CCD dark current rate, and
to monitor and characterize the evolution of hot pixels. Over an extended
period these data will also provide a monitor of radiation damage to the

NIC2 11237

The Origin of the Break in the AGN Luminosity Function

We propose to use NICMOS imaging to measure rest-frame optical luminosities
and morphological properties of a complete sample of faint AGN host galaxies
at redshifts z ~ 1.4. The targets are drawn from the VLT-VIMOS Deep Survey,
and they constitute a sample of the lowest luminosity type 1 AGN known at z
> 1. The spectroscopically estimated black hole masses are up to an order of

magnitude higher than expected given their nuclear luminosities, implying
highly sub-Eddington accretion rates. This exactly matches the prediction
made by recent theoretical models of AGN evolution, according to which the
faint end of the AGN luminosity function is populated mainly by big black
holes that have already exhausted a good part of their fuel. In this
proposal we want to test further predictions of that hypothesis, by focusing
on the host galaxy properties of our low-luminosity, low- accretion AGN. If
the local ratio between black hole and bulge masses holds at least
approximately at these redshifts, one expects most of these low-luminosity
AGN to reside in fairly big ellipticals with stellar masses around and above
10^11 solar masses (in contrast to the Seyfert phenomenon in the local
universe). With NICMOS imaging we will find out whether that is true,
implying also a sensitive test for the validity of the M_BH/M_bulge relation
at z ~ 1.4.

WFPC2 11235

HST NICMOS Survey of the Nuclear Regions of Luminous Infrared Galaxies in
the Local Universe

At luminosities above 10^11.4 L_sun, the space density of far-infrared
selected galaxies exceeds that of optically selected galaxies. These
`luminous infrared galaxies’ {LIRGs} are primarily interacting or merging
disk galaxies undergoing enhanced star formation and Active Galactic Nuclei
{AGN} activity, possibly triggered as the objects transform into massive S0
and elliptical merger remnants. We propose NICMOS NIC2 imaging of the
nuclear regions of a complete sample of 88 L_IR > 10^11.4 L_sun luminous
infrared galaxies in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample {RBGS: i.e., 60
micron flux density > 5.24 Jy}. This sample is ideal not only in its
completeness and sample size, but also in the proximity and brightness of
the galaxies. The superb sensitivity and resolution of NICMOS NIC2 on HST
enables a unique opportunity to study the detailed structure of the nuclear
regions, where dust obscuration may mask star clusters, AGN and additional
nuclei from optical view, with a resolution significantly higher than
possible with Spitzer IRAC. This survey thus provides a crucial component to
our study of the dynamics and evolution of IR galaxies presently underway
with Wide-Field, HST ACS/WFC and Spitzer IRAC observations of these 88
galaxies. Imaging will be done with the F160W filter {H-band} to examine as
a function of both luminosity and merger stage {i} the luminosity and
distribution of embedded star clusters, {ii} the presence of optically
obscured AGN and nuclei, {iii} the correlation between the distribution of
1.6 micron emission and the mid-IR emission as detected by Spitzer IRAC,
{iv} the evidence of bars or bridges that may funnel fuel into the nuclear
region, and {v} the ages of star clusters for which photometry is available
via ACS/WFC observations. The NICMOS data, combined with the HST ACS,
Spitzer, and GALEX observations of this sample, will result in the most
comprehensive study of merging and interacting galaxies to date.

FGS 11212

Filling the Period Gap for Massive Binaries

The current census of binaries among the massive O-type stars is seriously
incomplete for systems in the period range from years to millennia because
the radial velocity variations are too small and the angular separations too
close for easy detection. Here we propose to discover binaries in this
observational gap through a Faint Guidance Sensor SNAP survey of relatively
bright targets listed in the Galactic O Star Catalog. Our primary goal is to
determine the binary frequency among those in the cluster/association,
field, and runaway groups. The results will help us assess the role of
binaries in massive star formation and in the processes that lead to the
ejection of massive stars from their natal clusters. The program will also
lead to the identification of new, close binaries that will be targets of
long term spectroscopic and high angular resolution observations to
determine their masses and distances. The results will also be important for
the interpretation of the spectra of suspected and newly identified binary
and multiple systems.

NIC1 11205

The Effects of Multiplicity on the Evolution of Young Stellar Objects: A
NICMOS Imaging Study

We propose to use NICMOS to investigate the multiplicity of young stellar
objects (YSOs) in the Orion B molecular cloud. Previous observations with
the Spitzer Space Telescope have revealed a remarkable star forming filament
near the NGC 2068 reflection nebula. The population of YSOs associated with
the filament exhibit a surprisingly wide range of circumstellar evolutionary
states, from deeply embedded protostars to T Tauri accretion disks. Many of
the circumstellar disks themselves show evidence for significant dust
evolution, including grain growth and settling and cleared inner holes,
apparently in spite of the very young age of these stars. We will estimate
the binary fraction of a representative sample of objects in these various
stages of evolution in order to test whether companions may play a
significant role in that evolution.

WFPC2 11201

Systemic and Internal motions of the Magellanic Clouds: Third Epoch Images

In Cycles 11 and 13 we obtained two epochs of ACS/HRC data for fields in the
Magellanic Clouds centered on background quasars. We used these data to
determine the proper motions of the LMC and SMC to better than 5% and 15%
respectively. These are by far the best determinations of the proper motions
of these two galaxies. The results have a number of unexpected implications
for the Milky Way-LMC-SMC system. The implied three-dimensional velocities
are larger than previously believed, and are not much less than the escape
velocity in a standard 10^12 solar mass Milky Way dark halo. Orbit
calculations suggest the Clouds may not be bound to the Milky Way or may
just be on their first passage, both of which would be unexpected in view of
traditional interpretations of the Magellanic Stream. Alternatively, the
Milky Way dark halo may be a factor of two more massive than previously
believed, which would be surprising in view of other observational
constraints. Also, the relative velocity between the LMC and SMC is larger
than expected, leaving open the possibility that the Clouds may not be bound
to each other. To further verify and refine our results we now request an
epoch of WFPC2/PC data for the fields centered on 40 quasars that have at
least one epoch of ACS imaging. We request execution in snapshot mode, as in
our previous programs, to ensure the most efficient use of HST resources. A
third epoch of data of these fields will provide crucial information to
verify that there are no residual systematic effects in our previous
measurements. More importantly, it will increase the time baseline from 2 to
5 yrs and will increase the number of fields with at least two epochs of
data. This will reduce our uncertainties correspondingly, so that we can
better address whether the Clouds are indeed bound to each other and to the
Milky Way. It will also allow us to constrain the internal motions of
various populations within the Clouds, and will allow us to determine a
distance to the LMC using rotational parallax.

WEPC2 11196

An Ultraviolet Survey of Luminous Infrared Galaxies in the Local Universe

At luminosities above 10^11.4 L_sun, the space density of far-infrared
selected galaxies exceeds that of optically selected galaxies. These
Luminous Infrared Galaxies {LIRGs} are primarily interacting or merging disk
galaxies undergoing starbursts and creating/fueling central AGN. We propose
far {ACS/SBC/F140LP} and near {WFPC2/PC/F218W} UV imaging of a sample of 27
galaxies drawn from the complete IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample {RBGS}
LIRGs sample and known, from our Cycle 14 B and I-band ACS imaging
observations, to have significant numbers of bright {23 < B < 21 mag} star clusters in the central 30 arcsec. The HST UV data will be combined with previously obtained HST, Spitzer, and GALEX images to {i} calculate the ages of the clusters as function of merger stage, {ii} measure the amount of UV light in massive star clusters relative to diffuse regions of star formation, {iii} assess the feasibility of using the UV slope to predict the far-IR luminosity {and thus the star formation rate} both among and within IR-luminous galaxies, and {iv} provide a much needed catalog of rest- frame UV morphologies for comparison with rest-frame UV images of high-z LIRGs and Lyman Break Galaxies. These observations will achieve the resolution required to perform both detailed photometry of compact structures and spatial correlations between UV and redder wavelengths for a physical interpretation our IRX-Beta results. The HST UV data, combined with the HST ACS, Spitzer, Chandra, and GALEX observations of this sample, will result in the most comprehensive study of luminous starburst galaxies to date.

WFPC2 11167

A Unique High Resolution Window to Two Strongly Lensed Lyman Break Galaxies

On rare occasions, the otherwise very faint Lyman Break Galaxies {LBGs} are
magnified by gravitational lensing to provide exceptional targets for
detailed spectroscopic and imaging studies. We propose HST WFPC2 and NICMOS
imaging of two strongly lensed Lyman Break Galaxies {LBGs} that were
recently discovered by members of our team. These two LBGs — the “8 O’Clock
Arc” and the “SDSS J1206+5142 Arc” — are currently the brightest known
LBGs, roughly 3 times brighter than the former record-holder, MS1512-cB58
{a.k.a. “cB58”}. The z=2.73 “8 O’Clock Arc” extends ~10 arcsec in length and
is magnified by a factor of 12. The z=2.00 “SDSS J1206+5142 Arc” also
extends ~10 arcsec in length and is magnified by a factor of 30. Due to
their brightness and magnification, these two strongly lensed LBGs offer an
unprecedented opportunity for the very detailed investigation of two
individual galaxies at high redshift. We are currently pursuing a vigorous
ground-based campaign to obtain multi- wavelength {UV, optical, NIR, radio}
observations of these two LBGs, but our campaign currently lacks a means of
obtaining high-resolution optical/NIR imaging — a lack that currently only
HST can address. Our prime objective for this proposal is to obtain high
resolution HST images of these two systems with two-orbit WFPC2 images in
the BVI bands and two-orbit NICMOS/NIC2 images in the J and H bands. These
data will allow us to construct detailed lensing models, probe the mass and
light profiles of the lenses and their environments, and constrain the star
formation histories and rest-frame UV/optical spectral energy distributions
of the LBGs.

ACS/SBC 11158

HST Imaging of UV Emission in Quiescent Early-type Galaxies

We have constructed a sample of early type galaxies at z~0.1 that have blue
UV-optical colors, yet also show no signs of optical emission, or extended
blue light. We have cross-correlated the SDSS catalog and the Galaxy
Evolution Explorer Medium Imaging Survey to select a sample of galaxies
where this UV emission is strongest. The origin of the UV rising flux in
these galaxies continues to be debated, and the possibility that some
fraction of these galaxies may be experiencing low levels of star formation
cannot be excluded. There is also a possibility that low level AGN activity
{as evidenced by a point source} is responsible We propose to image the UV
emission using the HST/SBC and to explore the morphology of the UV emission
relative to the optical light.

WFPC2 11156

Monitoring Active Atmospheres on Uranus and Neptune

We propose Snapshot observations of Uranus and Neptune to monitor changes in
their atmospheres on time scales of weeks and months. Uranus equinox is only
months away, in December 2007. Hubble Space Telescope observations during
the past several years {Hammel et al. 2005, Icarus 175, 284 and references
therein} have revealed strongly wavelength- dependent latitudinal structure,
the presence of numerous visible-wavelength cloud features in the northern
hemisphere, at least one very long-lived discrete cloud in the southern
hemisphere, and in 2006 the first dark spot ever seen on Uranus. Long-term
ground-based observations {Lockwood and Jerzekiewicz, 2006, Icarus 180, 442;
Hammel and Lockwood 2007, Icarus 186, 291} reveal seasonal brightness
changes whose origins are not well understood. Recent near- IR images of
Neptune obtained using adaptive optics on the Keck Telescope, together with
HST observations {Sromovsky et al. 2003, Icarus 163, 256 and references
therein} which include previous Snapshot programs {GO 8634, 10170, 10534}
show a general increase in activity at south temperate latitudes until 2004,
when Neptune returned to a rather Voyager-like appearance. Further Snapshot
observations of these two dynamic planets will elucidate the nature of
long-term changes in their zonal atmospheric bands and clarify the processes
of formation, evolution, and dissipation of discrete albedo features.

NIC2 11150

Beta Pic Polarimetry with NICMOS

Debris disk stars host transient dust grains that comprise a collisional
cascade with sizes ranging from planetesimals to the sub-micron. In addition
to the gravity of the host star and any planets present, these grains are
subject to size-dependent non-gravitational forces, e.g., corpuscular drag
and radiation pressure. When a steep spectrum of grain sizes prevails, such
as the Dohnanyi distribution, scattered light images preferentially trace
grains with dimensionless size parameter of order unity. Thus images in
scattered starlight provide unique windows on the balance of forces acting
on grains at a specific size. Therefore, in an A star system such as beta
Pic, the near-IR is dominated by grains close to the blow out size and
therefore NICMOS traces dust on hyperbolic orbits.

Scattering is fundamentally polarization sensitive, and measurements that
record intensity literally see only half the picture. If linear polarization
is measured then the elements of the complex scattering matrix can be
reconstructed. These matrix elements provide fundamental constraints on the
size, composition and structure of the scatterers. Notably, polarimetry can
be used to break the degeneracy between scattering asymmetry, g, and the
radial dust gradient, which are otherwise covariant in an edge-on disk.
Thus, we can use polarimetry to localize the parent bodies in the beta Pic

In beta Pic, dust is thought to originate mainly from the sublimation of
cometary bodies near periastron. The irradiation of cometary material leads
to sublimation and photodissociation of ices forming porous grains
consisting of a matrix of refractory material. Such grains have a
characteristic scattering signature in polarized light that can be
distinguished from compact grains that arise from collisional erosion of
asteroidal material.

WFPC2 11134

WFPC2 Tidal Tail Survey: Probing Star Cluster Formation on the Edge

The spectacular HST images of the interiors of merging galaxies such as the
Antennae and NGC 7252 have revealed rich and diverse populations of star
clusters created over the course of the interaction. Intriguingly, our WFPC2
study of tidal tails in these and other interacting pairs has shown that
star cluster birth in the tails does not follow a similarly straightforward
evolution. In fact, cluster formation in these relatively sparse
environments is not guaranteed — only one of six tails in our initial study
showed evidence for a significant population of young star clusters. The
tail environment thus offers the opportunity to probe star cluster formation
on the edge of the physical parameter space {e.g., of stellar and gas mass,
density, and pressure} that permits it to occur. We propose to significantly
extend our pilot sample of optically bright, gas-rich tidal tails by a
factor of 4 in number to include a more diverse population of tails,
encompassing major and minor mergers, gas-rich and gas-poor tails, as well
as early, late, and merged interaction stages. With 21 orbits of HST WFPC2
imaging in the F606W and F814W filters, we can identify, roughly age-date,
and measure sizes of star clusters to determine what physical parameters
affect star cluster formation. WFPC2 imaging has been used effectively in
our initial study of four mergers, and it will be possible in this program
to reach similar limits of Mv=-8.5 for each of 16 more tails. With the much
larger sample we expect to isolate which factors, such as merger stage, HI
content, and merger mass ratio, drive the formation of star clusters.

WFPC2 11130

AGNs with Intermediate-mass Black Holes: Testing the Black Hole-Bulge
Paradigm, Part II

The recent progress in the study of central black holes in galactic nuclei
has led to a general consensus that supermassive {10^6-10^9 solar mass}
black holes are closely connected with the formation and evolutionary
history of large galaxies, especially their bulge component. Two outstanding
issues, however, remain unresolved. Can central black holes form in the
absence of a bulge? And does the mass function of central black holes extend
below 10^6 solar masses? Intermediate-mass black holes {<10^6 solar masses}, if they exist, may offer important clues to the nature of the seeds of supermassive black holes. Using the SDSS, our group has successfully uncovered a new population of AGNs with intermediate-mass black holes that reside in low-luminosity galaxies. However, very little is known about the detailed morphologies or structural parameters of the host galaxies themselves, including the crucial question of whether they have bulges or not. Surprisingly, the majority of the targets of our Cycle 14 pilot program have structural properties similar to dwarf elliptical galaxies. The statistics from this initial study, however, are really too sparse to reach definitive conclusions on this important new class of black holes. We wish to extend this study to a larger sample, by using the Snapshot mode to obtain WFPC2 F814W images from a parent sample of 175 AGNs with intermediate- mass black holes selected from our final SDSS search. We are particularly keen to determine whether the hosts contain bulges, and if so, how the fundamental plane properties of the host depend on the mass of their central black holes. We will also investigate the environment of this unique class of AGNs.

WFPC2 11113

Binaries in the Kuiper Belt: Probes of Solar System Formation and

The discovery of binaries in the Kuiper Belt and related small body
populations is powering a revolutionary step forward in the study of this
remote region. Three quarters of the known binaries in the Kuiper Belt have
been discovered with HST, most by our snapshot surveys. The statistics
derived from this work are beginning to yield surprising and unexpected
results. We have found a strong concentration of binaries among
low-inclination Classicals, a possible size cutoff to binaries among the
Centaurs, an apparent preference for nearly equal mass binaries, and a
strong increase in the number of binaries at small separations. We propose
to continue this successful program in Cycle 16; we expect to discover at
least 13 new binary systems, targeted to subgroups where these discoveries
can have the greatest impact.


Significant Spacecraft Anomalies: (The following are preliminary reports of
potential non-nominal performance that will be investigated.)


11461 – GSAcq (1,2,2) and REAcq failed to RGA Hold due to QSTOP flag on FGS1

GSAcq (1,2,2), scheduled from 243/14:08:05 – 14:15:22z. REAcq (1,2,2),
scheduled from 15:43:17 – 15:50:34z. Observations affected: WFPC2 #189-194,
Proposals #11167 & 11795.

11463 – GSAcq(1,2,2) and 3 REAcqs failed to gyro control with QSTOP flag oon

REACQ(1,2,2) at 07:41:26z, 09:17:19 & 10:54:01z. Observations affected: WFPC
199-218, Proposals #11167 & 11795.



                         SCHEDULED      SUCCESSFUL

FGS GSacq                 38                  36
FGS REacq                 16                  12
OBAD with Maneuver       108                 108


SpaceRef staff editor.