Status Report

NASA Hubble Space Telescope Daily Report # 3542

By SpaceRef Editor
February 3, 2004
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HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE – Continuing to collect World Class Science




S/C/NIC1/NIC3 9994

NICMOS Focus Stability

The purpose of this activity is to determine if the best focus determined in
SMOV is stable. This program will execute in approximately one month intervals
starting about 1 month after the last execution of proposal 8980.

ACS 9984

Cosmic Shear With ACS Pure Parallels

Small distortions in the shapes of background galaxies by foreground mass
provide a powerful method of directly measuring the amount and distribution of
dark matter. Several groups have recently detected this weak lensing by
large-scale structure, also called cosmic shear. The high resolution and
sensitivity of HST/ACS provide a unique opportunity to measure cosmic shear
accurately on small scales. Using 260 parallel orbits in Sloan textiti {F775W}
we will measure for the first time: beginlistosetlength sep0cm
setlength opsep0cm em the cosmic shear variance on scales <0.7 arcmin, em the
skewness of the shear distribution, and em the magnification effect.
endlist Our
measurements will determine the amplitude of the mass power spectrum
sigma_8Omega_m^0.5, with signal-to-noise {s/n} ~ 20, and the mass density
Omega_m with s/n=4. They will be done at small angular scales where non-linear
effects dominate the power spectrum, providing a test of the gravitational
instability paradigm for structure formation. Measurements on these scales are
not possible from the ground, because of the systematic effects induced by PSF
smearing from seeing. Having many independent lines of sight reduces the
uncertainty due to cosmic variance, making parallel observations ideal.

FGS 9969

FGS Astrometry of the Extrasolar Planet of Epsilon Eridani

We propose observations with HST/FGS in Position Mode to determine the
astrometric elements {perturbation orbit semimajor axis and inclination} of the
candidate extra-solar planet around the K2 V star Epsilon Eridani that has been
detected by Doppler spectroscopy. These observations will also permit us to
determine the actual mass of the planet by providing the sin{i} factor
which can
not be determined with the radial velocity method. High precision radial
velocity {RV} measurements spanning the years 1980.8–2000.0 for the nearby
{3.22 pc} star Epsilon Eri show convincing variations with a period of ~ 7 yrs.
These data represent a combination of six independent data sets taken with four
different telescopes. A least squares orbital solution using robust estimation
yields orbital parameters of period, P = 6.9 yrs, velocity K- amplitude = 19
m/s, eccentricity e = 0.6, projected companion mass M_B sin{i} = 0.83
An estimate of the inclination yields a perturbation semi-major axis, Alpha =
0arcs0022, easily within the reach of HST/FGS astrometry.


The Morphological, Photometric, and Spectroscopic Properties of Intermediate
Redshift Cluster Galaxies:

New and fundamental constraints on the evolutionary state of high redshift
clusters will be made by obtaining deep, multiband images {SDSS r, i, z} over
the central 1.5 Mpc regions of seven distant clusters in the range 0.76 < z <
1.27. The ACS data will allow us to {1} definitively establish the
composition and star formation rates as functions of clustercentric radius,
local density, x-ray luminosity {obtained from accompanying Chandra, and XMM
data}, {2} explore the relationship between substructure, kinematics, and
morphology, {3} strongly constrain the galaxy merger frequency and the origins
of elliptical and S0 galaxies, {4} measure the mass distribution independently
from the light {via gravitational lensing} enabling comparisons with
kinematically derived masses, and {5} study the evolution of the structure of
the brightest cluster members. The clusters selected for this program already
have extensive spectroscopic observations and NIR imaging is either in hand or
underway from approved ground based programs. To date, the lower part of this
redshift range has only been marginally studied with HST. Our sample includes
the two most distant, spectroscopically confirmed superclusters and will
significantly increase the baseline over which evolutionary effects can be
studied. The data will also be used to identify very high-z galaxies via their
unique spectral properties.

FGS 9883

Parallaxes of Extreme Halo Subgiants: Calibrating Globular Cluster
Distances and
the Ages of the Oldest Stars

The ages of the oldest stars are a key constraint on the evolution of our
Galaxy, the history of star formation, and cosmological models. These ages are
usually determined from globular clusters. However, it is alternatively
to determine ages of extreme Population II subgiants in the solar neighborhood
based on trigonometric parallaxes, without any recourse to clusters. This
approach completely avoids the vexing issues of cluster distances, reddenings,
and chemical compositions. There are 3 known nearby, extremely metal-deficient
Pop II subgiants with Hipparcos parallax errors of 6-11% which are
available for
such age determinations. At present, based on the latest isochrones, the
ages of these stars {HD 84937, HD 132475, and HD 140283} are all close to 14
Gyr, uncomfortably close to or higher than current estimates of the age of the
universe. However, the errors in the Hipparcos parallaxes imply
uncertainties of
at least 2 Gyr in the ages of the 3 stars. We propose to measure parallaxes of
these three Pop II subgiants using HST’s Fine Guidance Sensor 1R. We expect to
reduce the Hipparcos parallax error bars by factors of 5-6, providing the most
stringent test yet of current theoretical stellar models of Pop II stars and
pushing the age uncertainties to below 0.5 Gyr. These data will also provide a
major new constraint on the distance scale of globular clusters, with wide
implications for stellar evolution and the calibration of Pop II standard

NIC/NIC3 9865

The NICMOS Parallel Observing Program

We propose to continue managing the NICMOS pure parallel program. Based on our
experience, we are well prepared to make optimal use of the parallel
opportunities. The improved sensitivity and efficiency of our observations will
substantially increase the number of line-emitting galaxies detected. As our
previous work has demonstrated, the most frequently detected line is Halpha at
0.7<z<1.9, which provides an excellent measure of current star formation rate.
We will also detect star-forming and active galaxies in other redshift ranges
using other emission lines. The grism observations will produce by far the best
available Halpha luminosity functions over the crucial–but poorly
observed–redshift range where galaxies appear to have assembled most of their
stellar mass. This key process of galaxy evolution needs to be studied with IR
data; we found that observations at shorter wavelengths appear to have missed a
large fraction of the star-formation in galaxies, due to dust reddening. We
also obtain deep F110W and F160W images, to examine the space densities and
morphologies of faint red galaxies. In addition to carrying out the public
parallels, we will make the fully reduced and calibrated images and spectra
available on-line, with some ground-based data for the deepest parallel fields

ACS/WFC 9860

ESSENCE: Measuring the Dark Energy Equation of State

The accelerating universe appears to be dominated by a dark energy with a
significant negative pressure. The ratio of the pressure to density of this
mysterious energy {its equation of state} is an observable which can
differentiate between the proliferating candidate theories. We propose to
estimate the dark energy equation of state by observing Type Ia supernovae at
redshifts near z=0.7 with HST in concert with the on-going ESSENCE NOAO Survey
program that is discovering and studying supernovae between 0.3<z<0.8. We show
that an interesting constraint on the equation of state can be made with
supernovae observed at modest redshifts given the current knowledge of the
matter density. We will follow 10 Type Ia supernovae discovered from the ground
and passed to HST without disrupting its schedule. The full data set will
constrain the equation of state to 10% and strictly limit the range of possible
dark energy models. In keeping with the ESSENCE policy, these observations will
available to the community immediately.


Anomalous Flux Ratios in Quadruple Gravitationally Lensed QSOs

We propose to observe eight {8} gravitationally lensed systems which exhibit
quadruple images of the background high redshift quasars. Models invoking a
smooth potential fit the observed image positions accurately, in most cases
better than 5 milliarcseconds. But the same models dramatically fail to predict
the observed flux ratios. These anomalous flux ratios can be attributed to
micro- or milli-lensing in the massive lensing halo. In this proposal, we will
isolate the source of the anomalous flux ratios by using the superior
of HST/STIS to obtain spectrophotometric data and compare the emission line
ratio of the QSOs to the continuum flux ratios. Due to the much larger size of
the broad emission line regions, the flux ratios in the emission lines should
only be affected by milli-lensing if the sub-halos are comparable or larger in
projected size than the source region. That is, flux ratios observed in the QSO
continuum are senstive to substructure on all scales {both micro- and
milli-lensing}, while the broad emission lines are insensitive to micro-lensing
due to the larger physical size of the source emission region. This sample of
eight quasars will provide the definitive evidence to distinguish between
possible sources causing the observed anomalous flux ratios.


The role of dark matter and intracluster gas in galaxy formation and cluster

We propose a fully-sampled mosaic of 41 ACS images to survey galaxy
and measure weak lensing signals to the turn-around radius in the X-ray
cluster, MS0451-03 {z=0.54}. The aim is to isolate the physical processes which
affect the evolution of cluster galaxy morphologies in the context of
well-defined dynamical system. The study will be used in contrast to a
successful campaign undertaken in Cycle 9 on a optically-selected target. By
comparing morphologies with spectroscopic and Chandra X-ray data, we will
quantify the role of the intracluster medium and associated substructures and
establish the timescales and physical regions within which the various
environmental processes occur.

NIC2 9801

Are OH/IR Stars the Youngest post-AGB stars? A NICMOS Imaging Survey

Essentially all well-characterized preplanetary nebulae {PPNe}– objects in
transition between the AGB and planetary nebula evolutionary phases – are
bipolar, whereas the mass-loss envelopes of AGB stars are strikingly spherical.
In order to understand the processes leading to bipolar mass-ejection, we need
to know at what stage of stellar evolution does bipolarity in the mass-loss
first manifest itself. We have recently hypothesized that most OH/IR stars
{evolved mass- losing stars with OH maser emission} are very young PPNe. We are
conducting a multiwavelength survey program of imaging and spectroscopic
observations of such objects, using a large, morphologically unbiased sample
selected using IRAS 12-to-25 micron colors. Our ongoing HST/SNAP imaging survey
of the optically bright half of this sample with WFPC2 and ACS is highly
successful: 19/32 objects observed are extended with bipolar/multipolar shapes
{remaining objects are unresolved}. Slightly more than 50% of our sample are
optically too faint or undetected but have strong near-IR counterparts — we
therefore propose a NICMOS SNAPshot imaging survey of these optically-faint
OH/IR stars. These observations are crucial for determining how and when the
bipolar geometry asserts itself. The results from our NICMOS survey {together
with the WFPC2/ACS survey} will allow us to draw general conclusions about the
onset of bipolar mass-ejection during late stellar evolution. Our complementary
program of interferometric mapping of the OH maser emission in our sources is
yielding kinematic information with spatial resolution comparable to that
in the
HST images. The HST/radio data will provide crucial input for theories of
post-AGB stellar evolution. In addition, these data will also indicate whether
the multiple concentric rings, "searchlight beams”, and truncated equatorial
disks recently discovered with HST in a few PPNe, are common or rare

STIS 9786

The Next Generation Spectral Library

We propose to continue the Cycle 10 snapshot program to produce a Next
Generation Spectral Library of 600 stars for use in modeling the integrated
light of galaxies and clusters. This program is using the low dispersion UV and
optical gratings of STIS. The library will be roughly equally divided among
metallicities, very low {[Fe/H] lt -1.5}, low {[Fe/H] -1.5 to -0.5}, near-solar
{[Fe/H] -0.3 to 0.1}, and super-solar {[Fe/H] gt 0.2}, well-sampling the entire
HR-diagram in each bin. Such a library will surpass all extant compilations and
have lasting archival value, well into the Next Generation Space Telescope era.
Because of the universal utility and community-broad nature of this venture, we
waive the entire proprietary period.


Search for Core-disrupting Wide-Angle Winds

We propose to obtain observations with STIS/FUV-MAMA of H$_2$ fluorescent lines
along the cavity surrounding the star T Tau N. Since H$_2$ fluorescent
lines are
direct tracers of shock-excitation in low-mass star-forming regions, the high
resolution achievable with STIS will allow us to delineate the region of
interaction between the wind and the cloud, and to investigate the geometry of
the outflow at unprecedentedly close distances to its source, < 100 AU. Our
observations will allow us to confirm, map out, and provide quantitative
estimates of the off-axis {wide-angle} flow for the first time. Understanding
the geometry of the wind is crucial because {1} it determines whether outflows
can disrupt their natal cores, and {2} it tests theories of jet production and

ACS/HRC 9782

Measuring Black Hole Masses in Double Peaked Broad Lined AGNs

To date there have been few black hole {BH} mass estimates for luminous broad
line AGN, including those derived from reverberation mapping. In this context,
objects with "double-peaked" broad lines are particularly important because the
line emission is believed to arise in a relativistically rotating accretion
disk. If this model is correct, then the BH mass can be determined directly
periodic variations in the line-profile shape. In two cases {Arp 102B and NGC
1097} such variations have been claimed. The goal of this proposal is to
confront the relativistic disk model for the double-peaked Balmer lines with
independent limits on the central masses for 5 of the nearest and brightest
"double-peaked emitters" {NGC 1097, Arp 102B, Pictor A, 3C390.3, 3C332},
determined by using STIS long-slit spectroscopy to map the velocity field of
circum-nuclear ionized gas. These observations will critically test the idea
that the line emission in these objects comes from an accretion disk and thus
provide unique insights into the physical processes operating in both the BLR
and the "central engine".

STIS 9633

STIS parallel archive proposal – Nearby Galaxies – Imaging and Spectroscopy

Using parallel opportunities with STIS which were not allocated by the TAC, we
propose to obtain deep STIS imagery with both the Clear {50CCD} and Long-Pass
{F28X50LP} filters in order to make color-magnitude diagrams and luminosity
functions for nearby galaxies. For local group galaxies, we also include G750L
slitless spectroscopy to search for e.g., Carbon stars, late M giants and
stars. This survey will be useful to study the star formation histories,
chemical evolution, and distances to these galaxies. These data will be placed
immediately into the Hubble Data Archive.

ACS 9438

The Origin of the Intergalactic Globular Cluster Population in Abell 1185

We request deep V and I observations with ACS to examine the properties of a
newly discovered population of intergalactic globular clusters in the core of
the rich galaxy cluster Abell 1185. Our previous WFPC2 observations of this
field {GO-8164} revealed an excess of five times the number of objects at the
expected magnitudes of globular clusters compared to the Hubble Deep
Fields. The
colors and luminosity function of these intergalactic globular clusters will
place strong constraints on their origin, which in turn will yield new insights
to the evolution of galaxy populations in dense environments


NICMOS Post-SAA calibration – CR Persistence Part 2

A new procedure proposed to alleviate the CR-persistence problem of NICMOS.
frames will be obtained immediately upon exiting the SAA contour 23, and every
time a NICMOS exposure is scheduled within 50 minutes of coming out of the SAA.
The darks will be obtained in parallel in all three NICMOS Cameras. The
darks will be non-standard reference files available to users with a USEAFTER
date/time mark. The keyword ‘USEAFTER=date/time’ will also be added to the
header of each POST-SAA DARK frame. The keyword must be populated with the
in addition to the date, because HST crosses the SAA ~8 times per day so each
POST-SAA DARK will need to have the appropriate time specified, for users to
identify the ones they need. Both the raw and processed images will be archived
as POST-SAA DARKSs. Generally we expect that all NICMOS science/calibration
observations started within 50 minutes of leaving an SAA will need such maps to
remove the CR persistence from the science images. Each observation will need
its own CRMAP, as different SAA passages leave different imprints on the NICMOS

S/C 4974


No available description

STIS/CCD 10085

STIS Pure Parallel Imaging Program: Cycle 12

This is the default archival pure parallel program for STIS during cycle 12.

WFPC2 10084

WFII parallel archive proposal

This is the generic target version of the WFPC2 Archival Pure Parallel program.
The program will be used to take parallel images of random areas of the sky,
following the recommendations of the 2002 Parallels Working Group.

STIS/MA1 10083

HST UV Images of Saturn’s Aurora Coordinated with Cassini Solar Wind

A key measurement goal of the Cassini mission to Saturn is to obtain
simultaneous solar wind and auroral imaging measurements in a campaign
for Jan. 2004. Cassini will measure the solar wind approaching Saturn
continuously from 9 Jan. – 6 Feb., but not closer to Saturn due to competing
spacecraft orientation constraints. The only system capable of imaging Saturn’s
aurora in early 2004 will be HST. In this community DD proposal we request the
minimum HST time needed to support the Cassini mission during the solar wind
campaign with UV images of Saturn’s aurora. Saturn’s magnetosphere is
intermediate between the "closed" Jovian case with large internal sources of
plasma and the Earth’s magnetosphere which is open to solar wind interactions.
Saturn’s aurora has been shown to exhibit large temporal variations in
brightness and morphology from Voyager and HST observations. Changes of auroral
emitted power exceeding one order of magnitude, dawn brightenings, and
latitudinal motions of the main oval have all been observed. Lacking knowledge
of solar wind conditions near Saturn, it has not been possible to determine its
role in Saturn’s auroral processes, nor the mechanisms controlling the auroral
precipitation. During Cassini’s upcoming approach to Saturn there will be a
unique opportunity to answer these questions. We propose to image one complete
rotation of Saturn to determine the corotational and longitudinal
dependences of
the auroral activity. We will then image the active sector of Saturn once every
two days for a total coverage of 26 days during the Cassini campaign to measure
the upstream solar wind parameters. This is the minimum coverage needed to
ensure observations of the aurora under solar wind pressure variations of more
than a factor of two, based on the solar wind pressure variations measured by
Voyager 2 near Saturn on the declining phase of solar activity. The team of
proposers has carried out a similar coordinated observing campaign of Jupiter
during the Cassini flyby, resulting in a set of papers and HST images on the
cover of Nature on 28 February 2002.

WFPC2 10082

POMS Test Proposal: WFII backup parallel archive proposal

This is a POMS test proposal designed to simulate scientific plans

WFPC2 10073

Earth Flats

This proposal monitors flatfield stability. This proposal obtains sequences of
Earth streak flats to construct high quality flat fields for the WFPC2 filter
set. These flat fields will allow mapping of the OTA illumination pattern and
will be used in conjuction with previous internal and external flats to
new pipeline superflats. These Earth flats will complement the Earth flat data
obtained during cycles 4-11.

WFPC2 10069

WFPC2 CYCLE 12 Supplemental Darks, Part 1/3

This dark calibration program obtains 3 dark frames every day to provide data
for monitoring and characterizing the evolution of hot pixels.


CCD Daily Monitor

This program consists of basic tests to monitor, the read noise, the
of hot pixels and test for any source of noise in ACS CCD detectors. This
programme will be executed once a day for the entire lifetime of ACS.

ACS/HRC 10050

ACS Earth Flats

High signal sky flats will be obtained by observing the bright Earth with the
HRC and WFC. These observations will be used to verify the accuracy of the
currently used by the pipeline and will provide a comparison with flats derived
via other techniques: L-flats from stellar observations, sky flats from stacked
GO observations, and internal flats using the calibration lamps. Weekly
coronographic monitoring is required to assess the changing position of the

ACS/WFC 10046

CCD Hot Pixel Annealing

Hot pixel annealing will be performed once every 4 weeks. The CCD TECs will be
turned off and heaters will be activated to bring the detector temperatures to
about +20C. This state will be held for approximately 12 hours, after which the
heaters are turned off, the TECs turned on, and the CCDs returned to normal
operating condition. To assess the effectiveness of this procedure, a bias and
two dark images will be taken after the annealing procedure for both WFC and
HRC. The HRC darks are taken in parallel with the WFC darks.

ACS/WFC 10043

External CTE Monitor

Monitor CTE changes during cycle 11. Determine CTE.

STIS/MA1 10034

Cycle 12 MAMA Dark Monitor

This test performs the routine monitoring of the MAMA detector dark noise. This
proposal will provide the primary means of checking on health of the MAMA
detectors systems through frequent monitoring of the background count rate. The
purpose is to look for evidence of change in dark indicative of detector

STIS/CCD 10019

CCD Bias Monitor – Part 1

Monitor the bias in the 1×1, 1×2, 2×1, and 2×2 bin settings at gain=1, and 1×1
at gain = 4, to build up high-S/N superbiases and track the evolution of hot

STIS/CCD 10017

CCD Dark Monitor-Part 1

Monitor the darks for the STIS CCD.


Significant Spacecraft Anomalies: (The following are preliminary reports of
potential non-nominal performance that will be investigated.)

HSTAR 9302: GS Acquisition (1,2,1) @ 031/02:35:23Z failed to RGA control
due to
SRLE on FGS 1. Prior FHST FM Updates U2,3FM @
031/02:10Z and 02:13Z
had good attitude errors. GS Re-acquisition @
031/04:06:26Z took two
attempts, but was successful. Under investigation.

HSTAR 9303: GS Acquisition (3,2,2) @ 032/02:33:19Z resulted in FL backup
due to SSLE on FGS 3. Subsequent GS Re-acquisitions
(3,2,2) @ 032/04:09:56Z,
032/05:45:05Z, 032/07:21:49Z, 032/08:57:45Z, and
032/10:33:42Z will also
result in FL backup.Under investigation.

HSTAR 9304: GS Acquisition (1,2,2) @ 032/12:14:00Z resulted in FL backup
using FGS 2
due to SSLEX on FGS 1. Prior FHST FM Updates @
032/11:53Z and 11:55Z
showed good attitude error vector. FHST Map @
032/12:50Z showed error
values of -20.737, -13.107, and -14.441 arcsec.
Under investigation.

HSTAR 9306: GS Acquisition (1,2,1) @ 033/03:45:46Z resulted in FL backup
using FGS 1.
After coming out of the ZOE @ 033/03:51:56Z, no
flags were observed.
Under investigation.

17085 TRT Trending Test 2004-030 @030/2228z

1160-2 Default Config for TLMDIAGs @030/2351z

                            SCHEDULED     SUCCESSFUL    FAILURE TIMES
FGS GSacq                27                        26             031/0235z 
FGS REacq                16                        16
FHST Update              57                        57


Successfully completed the second TRT Trending Test 030/21:01Z – 22:28Z
(OR 17085 with attached Transient Rate Trending Test script). The test
performed exactly as expected. A very preliminary look at the data indicates
extended transitions were seen for some of the iterations. This data will
now be combined with the first run of this test to look for trends.
Subsequent GS acquisition (using FGS 2) @ 030/23:55Z was successful.

SpaceRef staff editor.