Press Release

25th anniversary of first attempt to phone E.T.

By SpaceRef Editor
November 12, 1999
Filed under

FOR RELEASE: Nov. 12, 1999

Contact: Bill Steele

Office: (607) 255-7164

E-Mail: ws21@cornell.edu

Compuserve: Bill Steele, 72650,565

http://www.news.cornell.edu

ITHACA, N.Y. — Twenty-five years ago next week, humanity sent its first and only deliberate radio message to extraterrestrials. Nobody has called back
yet, but that’s OK — we weren’t really expecting an answer.

The message was sent during the dedication of a major upgrade to the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico on the afternoon of Nov. 16, 1974, and
contained some very basic information about the human race. It included representations of the fundamental chemicals of life, the formula for DNA, a
crude diagram of our solar system and simple pictures of a human being and the Arecibo telescope.

“It was strictly a symbolic event, to show that we could do it,” explains Donald Campbell, Cornell University professor of astronomy, who was a
research associate at the Arecibo Observatory at the time. Arecibo Observatory is operated by the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, managed by
Cornell University for the National Science Foundation.

The real purpose of the message was to call attention to the tremendous power of the radar transmitter newly installed at Arecibo and the ability of the
telescope’s 1,000-foot diameter dish antenna to project a powerful signal into space. But many of those present took the event seriously, according to
Harold Craft, Cornell’s vice president for services and facilities, who was then director of the Arecibo Observatory. “We translated the radio-frequency
message into a warbling audio tone that was broadcast over speakers at the ceremony. When it started, much of the audience spontaneously got up and
walked out of the tent and gazed up at the telescope.”

While the audience that had gathered beside the huge Arecibo dish was impressed by the idea of sending messages to space, others were critical. Some
actually suggested that sending such a message was dangerous, because it might attract the attention of hostile aliens.

They probably needn’t have worried. The chance that the message might actually be detected by some extraterrestrial intelligence is extremely small. It was
sent only once, over a period of about three minutes, on a narrow beam directed toward a group of about 300,000 stars called the Great Cluster in
Hercules, Messier 13. The globular cluster is 25,000 light-years away in our galaxy, the Milky Way. So far, moving at the speed of light, the message has
traveled only one thousandth of the distance, or about 147 trillion miles. There are stars closer to our solar system than that, but none of them is in the path
of the message.

Ironically, the globular cluster at which the signal was aimed won’t be there when the message arrives. It will have moved well out of the way in the
normal rotation of the galaxy. But “anyone” in the target area when the signal arrives, they could detect it with a radio telescope of similar size, and it
would appear at 10 million times the intensity of the normal radio signals from our sun. From there, the message will continue on its course through outer
space, ultimately, millions of years hence, reaching distant galaxies.

Since the transmitter was installed in 1974, Arecibo radar has been used for extensive explorations of the solar system, including detailed mapping of the
surfaces of the moon and Venus. The radar was upgraded to even higher power in 1997. No other formal messages have been sent, but many of the radar
signals have continued on out of our solar system and if detected would clearly be seen as created by intelligent beings, Campbell says. In addition, a
message, engraved on copper plate, accompanied the Pioneer 10 spacecraft launched in March 1972 and now is about 7 billion miles from Earth.

Meanwhile, researchers constantly use the huge dish antenna to listen for signals from alien intelligence. One project, known as Phoenix, aims the
telescope at specific stars; another, called Serendip, collects data on certain likely frequencies during all the telescope’s other operations, and distributes the
data to thousands of volunteers to process on personal computers. Project Phoenix is directed by the non-profit SETI Institute, based in Mountain View,
Calif. Serendip is a project of the University of California at Berkeley.

The 1974 message was transmitted on a frequency of 2380 MHz and consisted of 1,679 binary bits representing ones and zeros, sent by shifting the
frequency of the signal up and down over a range of about 10 Hz, a method similar to that used by computer modems to send binary code over a telephone
line. If the ones are translated into graphics characters and the zeros into spaces, the message forms a symbolic picture 23 characters wide by 73 long.

The content of the message was developed by Frank Drake, then professor of astronomy at Cornell and now a professor in the Division of Natural
Sciences at the University of California at Santa Cruz and president of the SETI Institute; Richard Isaacman, then a Cornell graduate student and now
working at Research and Data Systems Corp. in Greenbelt, Mass.; Linda May, another graduate student now professor of physical sciences at Wheelock
College in Massachussetts, and James C.G. Walker, then a member of the Arecibo staff and now professor of physical sciences at the University of
Michigan at Ann Arbor. Others, especially the late Carl Sagan, who eventually became the David Duncan Professor of Astronomy and Space Sciences at
Cornell, contributed to the project.

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Related World Wide Web sites: The following sites provide additional information on this news release. Some might not be part of the Cornell University
community, and Cornell has no control over their content or availability.

–The Arecibo web site: http://www.naic.edu/ ,

http://astrosun.tn.cornell.edu/research/facilities/arecibo.htm

— Cornell News Service coverage of the most recent Arecibo upgrade:

http://www.news.cornell.edu/science/June97/Arecibo/newsweb.html

— The SETI Institute: http://www.seti-inst.edu/,

http://www.seti-inst.edu/science/a-message.html

— Profile of Jill Tarter, director of Project Phoenix:

http://www.news.cornell.edu/Chronicle/97/6.26.97/Tarter.html

SpaceRef staff editor.