Space Weather Guide

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What is Space Weather?

Most of the time space, weather is of little concern in our everyday lives. However, when the space environment is disturbed by the variable output of particles and radiation from the Sun, technologies that we depend on in our daily life, in space orbit as well as on the ground, can be affected. Some of the most dramatic space weather effects occur in association with eruptions of material from the solar atmosphere into interplanetary space. Thus, our space weather is a consequence of the behavior of the Sun, the nature of Earth's magnetic field and atmosphere, and our location in the solar system. The increasing deployment of radiation -current- and field sensitive technological systems over the last few decades and the increasing presence of complex systems in space combine to make society more vulnerable to solar-terrestrial disturbances. This has been emphasized by the large number of problems associated with the severe magnetic storms between 1989 and 1991 as the 11 year solar activity cycle peaked.

SOHO Real-time View of the Sun

Space Weather Outlook

Joint USAF/NOAA Solar Geophysical Activity Report and Forecast 25 March 2015


Joint USAF/NOAA Solar Geophysical Activity Report and Forecast

SDF Number 84 Issued at 2200Z on 25 Mar 2015


IA.  Analysis of Solar Active Regions and Activity from 24/2100Z to 25/2100Z: Solar activity has been at low levels for the past 24 hours. The largest solar event of the period was a C8 event observed at 25/0446Z from Region 2305 (S08E19). There are currently 7 numbered sunspot regions on the disk.


IB.  Solar Activity Forecast: Solar activity is expected to be low with a chance for M-class flares on days one, two, and three (26 Mar, 27 Mar, 28 Mar).


IIA.  Geophysical Activity Summary 24/2100Z to 25/2100Z: The geomagnetic field has been at quiet to active levels for the past 24 hours. Solar wind speed, as measured by the ACE spacecraft, reached a peak speed of 608 km/s at 25/1521Z. Total IMF reached 7 nT at 25/1202Z. The maximum southward component of Bz reached -4 nT at 25/0929Z. Electrons greater than 2 MeV at geosynchronous orbit reached a peak level of 4999 pfu.


IIB.  Geophysical Activity Forecast: The geomagnetic field is expected to be at quiet levels on day one (26 Mar), quiet to active levels on day two (27 Mar) and active to minor storm levels on day three (28 Mar).


III.  Event probabilities 26 Mar-28 Mar

Class M    25/25/25

Class X    05/05/05

Proton     01/01/01

PCAF       green


IV.  Penticton 10.7 cm Flux

Observed           25 Mar 138

Predicted   26 Mar-28 Mar 008/015/025

90 Day Mean        25 Mar 132


V.  Geomagnetic A Indices

Observed Afr/Ap 24 Mar  009/008

Estimated Afr/Ap 25 Mar  011/014

Predicted Afr/Ap 26 Mar-28 Mar  007/008-011/015-017/025


VI.  Geomagnetic Activity Probabilities 26 Mar-28 Mar

A.  Middle Latitudes

Active                15/30/40

Minor Storm           01/05/20

Major-severe storm    01/01/01

B.  High Latitudes

Active                15/15/10

Minor Storm           25/30/25

Major-severe storm    20/35/55


NOAA/SEC Satellite Environment

GOES X-Ray Flux

Dst Geomagnetic Index Estimate

Auroral Activity Extrapolated from NOAA POES


Dst > -20 nT


-20 nT > Dst > -50 nT


High: -50 nT > Dst > -100 nT


Dst < -100 nT


ACE Solar Wind Real-Time Data

Note: Images and text on this page are provided by NASA/ESA SOHO website. Space Weather Today from NOAA's Space Environment Center.