New Sub-mm Camera Reveals Dark Side of Universe

A new camera that will revolutionize the field of submillimeter astronomy has been unveiled on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) in Hawaii. SCUBA-2 is far more sensitive and powerful than previous instruments and can map areas of the sky hundreds of times faster.

SCUBA-2 will provide unprecedented information on the early life of stars -- normally obscured by the remains of the very dust and gas cloud that collapsed under its own gravity to form the star.

"When you look up at the stars, you only see the light they are emitting in the visible part of the spectrum. Many galaxies, including our own Milky Way, contain huge amounts of cold dust that absorbs visible light, and these dusty regions just look black when seen through an optical telescope. The absorbed energy is then re-radiated by the dust at longer, submillimeter, wavelengths", explains Professor Gary Davis, Director of the JCMT. "SCUBA-2 has been designed to detect extremely low-energy radiation in the submillimeter region of the spectrum. To do this, the instrument itself needs to be even colder. The detectors inside SCUBA-2 have to be cooled to only 0.1 degree above absolute zero [minus 273.05 degrees Celsius], making the interior of SCUBA-2 colder than anything in the Universe that we know of!"

The project was led by STFC's U.K. Astronomy Technology Centre (UKATC) in Edinburgh in collaboration with a world-wide consortium of laboratories including four universities (British Columbia, Cardiff, Edinburgh and Waterloo), the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology, and the Joint Astronomy Centre, which operates the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope.

Professor Ian Robson, Director of UKATC, said: "The heart of SCUBA-2, the detector arrays, are a huge achievement, a world-first, and the technological challenges in making them have been absolutely immense. It is equivalent to going from a primitive wind-on film camera that people over 50 might remember using straight to a modern digital camera all in one step. It is thanks to the ingenuity and abilities of our scientists and engineers that this immense leap in progress has been achieved."

U.K., Canadian and Dutch researchers have pioneered observations of the sky in the submillimeter wavelength range (0.4 to 1 millimeter) through their partnership on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. SCUBA-2's predecessor, SCUBA (Submillimeter Common User Bolometer Array) produced many new and unexpected discoveries, from a previously unknown population of distant, dusty galaxies (known ever since as 'SCUBA galaxies'), to the first images of cold debris discs around nearby stars, which may indicate the presence of planetary systems.

Commenting on the performance of the new instrument, Professor Wayne Holland of UKATC, and the SCUBA-2 Project Scientist, said "With SCUBA, it typically took 20 nights to image an area about the size of the full Moon. SCUBA-2 will be able to cover the same area in a couple of hours and go much deeper, allowing us to detect faint objects that have never been seen before."

The increased mapping speed and sensitivity of SCUBA-2 make it ideal for large-scale surveys; no other instrument will be able to survey the submillimeter sky in such exquisite detail. Dr. Antonio Chrysostomou, Associate Director of the JCMT, said, "SCUBA-2's first task will be to carry out a series of surveys right across the heavens, mapping sites of star formation within our galaxy, as well as planet formation around nearby stars. It will also survey our galactic neighbors and, crucially, will look deep into space and sample the youngest galaxies in the Universe, which will be critical to understanding how galaxies have evolved since the Big Bang".

The data obtained by these surveys will allow a new and precise understanding of star formation throughout the history of the universe, and complements research being carried out on other telescopes such as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), currently undergoing commissioning in Chile.

Text & Images:

Media Contacts:

Stephanie Hills
STFC Media Manager
+44 (0) 1235 445398

Dr. Holly Thomas
Joint Astronomy Centre
+1 808-969-6531

Dr. John Davies
STFC U.K. Astronomy Technology Centre
+44 (0) 131 668 8348

Science Contacts (please note that it is best to contact these
individuals by email):
Prof. Wayne Holland
STFC U.K. Astronomy Technology Centre
+44 (0) 131 668 8389

Prof. Ian Robson
U.K. Astronomy Technology Centre
+44 (0) 131 668 8438

Dr. Antonio Chrysostomou
Joint Astronomy Centre
+1 808-969-6512

Prof. Gary Davis
Joint Astronomy Centre
+1 808-969-6504

# # #

Further Information

Light-year: One light-year is about 10 million million kilometers or 6 million
million miles.

Submillimeter light: Submillimeter wavelengths are much smaller wavelengths than emitted by a typical radio station, but longer wavelengths than light waves or infrared wavelengths. They are typically measured in microns, also called micrometers. One micron is one millionth of a meter or one 10,000th of a centimeter. Submillimeter astronomy is most sensitive to very cold gas and dust. For example, a source with a temperature of 10 K (-263*C) emits most of its energy in a broad spectral region centered around 300 microns. Such very cold material is associated with objects in formation, that is, the mysterious earliest evolutionary stages of galaxies, stars and planets. To understand the origins of these most fundamental of astronomical structures, the submillimeter is the waveband of choice.

SCUBA-2 key facts:

* Size: 3m (height), 2.4m (width), 2.6m (depth)
* Weight: 4.5 tons (about three times the weight of a typical car)
* Temperature of detectors: 0.1K = -272.9*C = -459.2*F
* Submillimeter camera with 5120 pixels (4 subarrays x 1280 pixels) at each wavelength band
* Provides a unique wide-field submillimeter imaging capability at 450 and 850 microns
* Hundreds of times faster at mapping large areas of sky than predecessor SCUBA to the same signal-to-noise
* Uses superconducting transition edge sensors as the light-sensitive elements
* Addresses a wide-range of scientific issues including how galaxies, stars and planets form
* Acts as a wide-field "pathfinder" for the new generation of submillimeter interferometers (e.g., SMA and ALMA)

The SCUBA-2 project is a collaboration of several observatories or laboratories. The project was led by the U.K. Astronomy Technology Centre (UKATC) with these partners:

* University of Edinburgh (array structures)
* Cardiff University (Focal Plane Units and 1K enclosure)
* U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (detector arrays and readout)
* University of British Columbia, Canada (multi-channel electronics and data reduction software)
* University of Waterloo, Canada (multiplexer screening)
* Joint Astronomy Centre (infrastructure and software).

A 2001 survey by the U.S.-based Space Telescope Science Institute revealed that scientific results from SCUBA-2's predecessor, SCUBA, had been cited almost as often as those from the Hubble Space
Telescope, and much more so than those from any other ground-based facility or satellite project.

The project was funded by the Science and Technology Facilities
Council (STFC), the JAC, and the Canada Foundation for Innovation.

The UKATC SCUBA-2 webpage:

James Clerk Maxwell Telescope:

* The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) is the world's largest single-dish submillimeter-wave telescope.
* It collects faint submillimeter-wavelength signals with its 15-meter-diameter dish.
* It is situated near the summit of Mauna Kea on the Big Island of
Hawaii, at an altitude of approximately 4000 meters (14000 feet) above sea level.
* It is operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre, on behalf of the U.K. Science and Technology Facilities Council, the Canadian National Research Council, and the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research.
* More about the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope:

Science and Technology Facilities Council: The Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) is keeping the U.K. at the forefront of international science and tackling some of the most significant challenges facing society such as meeting our future energy needs, monitoring and understanding climate change, and global security. The Council has a broad science portfolio and works with the academic and industrial communities to share its expertise in materials science, space and ground-based astronomy technologies, laser science, microelectronics, wafer scale manufacturing, particle and nuclear physics, alternative energy production, radio communications and radar. STFC operates or hosts world class experimental facilities including:

* in the U.K.; ISIS pulsed neutron source, the Central Laser Facility, and LOFAR. STFC is also the majority shareholder in Diamond Light Source Ltd.

* overseas; telescopes on La Palma and Hawaii

National Research Council of Canada: Recognized globally for research and innovation, Canada's National Research Council (NRC) is a leader in the development of an innovative, knowledge-based economy for Canada through science and technology.

Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research: The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) is the principal Dutch science funding body and its mission is to facilitate excellent scientific research in the Netherlands by means of national competition. Each year NWO spends more than 700 million euros on grants for top research and top researchers, on innovative instruments and equipment, and on institutes where top research is performed. NWO funds the research of more than 5300 talented researchers at universities and institutes. Independent experts select proposals by means of a peer review system. NWO facilitates the transfer of knowledge to society.

Please follow SpaceRef on Twitter and Like us on Facebook.