From: arXiv.org e-Print archive
Posted: Wednesday, December 5, 2018
Sean N. Raymond, Andre Izidoro, Alessandro Morbidelli
(Submitted on 3 Dec 2018)
Exoplanet surveys have confirmed one of humanity's (and all teenagers') worst fears: we are weird. If our Solar System were observed with present-day Earth technology -- to put our system and exoplanets on the same footing -- Jupiter is the only planet that would be detectable. The statistics of exo-Jupiters indicate that the Solar System is unusual at the ~1% level among Sun-like stars (or ~0.1% among all stars). But why are we different?
Successful formation models for both the Solar System and exoplanet systems rely on two key processes: orbital migration and dynamical instability. Systems of close-in super-Earths or sub-Neptunes require substantial radial inward motion of solids either as drifting mm- to cm-sized pebbles or migrating Earth-mass or larger planetary embryos. We argue that, regardless of their formation mode, the late evolution of super-Earth systems involves migration into chains of mean motion resonances, generally followed by instability when the disk dissipates. This pattern is likely also ubiquitous in giant planet systems. We present three models for inner Solar System formation -- the low-mass asteroid belt, Grand Tack, and Early Instability models -- each invoking a combination of migration and instability.
We identify bifurcation points in planetary system formation. We present a series of events to explain why our Solar System is so weird. Jupiter's core must have formed fast enough to quench the growth of Earth's building blocks by blocking the flux of inward-drifting pebbles. The large Jupiter/Saturn mass ratio is rare among giant exoplanets but may be required to maintain Jupiter's wide orbit. The giant planets' instability must have been gentle, with no close encounters between Jupiter and Saturn, also unusual in the larger (exoplanet) context. Our Solar System system is thus the outcome of multiple unusual, but not unheard of, events.
Comments: Chapter to appear in Planetary Astrobiology (Editors: Victoria Meadows, Giada Arney, David DesMarais, and Britney Schmidt). 35 pages, 6 figures
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)
Cite as: arXiv:1812.01033 [astro-ph.EP] (or arXiv:1812.01033v1 [astro-ph.EP] for this version)
From: Sean Raymond
[v1] Mon, 3 Dec 2018 19:08:59 UTC (1,523 KB)
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