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Effect of Jupiter's Formation on the Distribution of Refractory Elements and Inclusions in Meteorites

Status Report From: arXiv.org e-Print archive
Posted: Thursday, October 12, 2017

Steven J. Desch, Anusha Kalyaan, Conel M. O'D. Alexander
(Submitted on 10 Oct 2017)

We present a comprehensive evolutionary model of the Sun's protoplanetary disk. The model predicts from first principles the gas densities and temperatures, and abundances of calcium-rich, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) and refractory lithophile elements (Ca, Al, Ti, etc.). A central assumption is that Jupiter's core formed early (<1 Myr) at 3 AU, opening a gap and creating a pressure maximum beyond it in which CAIs were trapped, thereby resolving the "CAI Storage Problem" of meteoritics. Carbonaceous chondrites formed in this pressure trap, while ordinary and enstatite chondrites formed from material inside Jupiter depleted in CAIs by aerodynamic drag. We match the model outputs at different times and locations to each of 11 chondrites, 5 achondrites, and the embryos of Earth and Mars, finding excellent agreement with known meteoritic constraints, and making specific, testable predictions where constraints are lacking. We predict the embryos of the terrestrial planets formed rapidly, in <2 Myr, and that dynamical scattering of asteroids was limited. We predict CI chondrites are depleted in refractory elements relative to the Sun, by about 9\% (0.04 dex). The model demands low levels of turbulence (α∼10−4) inside 1 AU, falling to lower levels (∼10−5) beyond 10 AU, suggesting angular momentum transport was dominated by hydrodynamical instabilities augmented by magnetic disk winds, and not by the magnetorotational instability. By 4 Myr, gas had vanished interior to Jupiter, but persisted beyond Jupiter, so that the solar nebula was a transition disk. The model demonstrates the power of meteoritic data to constrain astrophysical disk processes.

Comments:    47 pages, 14 figures, 4 tables, submitted to ApJ
Subjects:    Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)
Cite as:    arXiv:1710.03809 [astro-ph.EP] (or arXiv:1710.03809v1 [astro-ph.EP] for this version)
Submission history
From: Anusha Kalyaan
[v1] Tue, 10 Oct 2017 20:27:22 GMT (5247kb,D)
https://arxiv.org/abs/1710.03809

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