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Extreme Solar Eruptions and their Space Weather Consequences

Status Report From: arXiv.org e-Print archive
Posted: Tuesday, September 12, 2017

Nat Gopalswamy
(Submitted on 10 Sep 2017)

Solar eruptions generally refer to coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and flares. Both are important sources of space weather. Solar flares cause sudden change in the ionization level in the ionosphere. CMEs cause solar energetic particle (SEP) events and geomagnetic storms. A flare with unusually high intensity and/or a CME with extremely high energy can be thought of examples of extreme events on the Sun. These events can also lead to extreme SEP events and/or geomagnetic storms. Ultimately, the energy that powers CMEs and flares are stored in magnetic regions on the Sun, known as active regions. Active regions with extraordinary size and magnetic field have the potential to produce extreme events. Based on current data sets, we estimate the sizes of one-in-hundred and one-in-thousand year events as an indicator of the extremeness of the events. We consider both the extremeness in the source of eruptions and in the consequences. We then compare the estimated 100-year and 1000-year sizes with the sizes of historical extreme events measured or inferred.

Comments:    39 pages, 13 figures, 2 tables, accepted on August 8, 2017 to be published by Elsevier as a chapter in the book, "Extreme Events in the Geospace: Origins, Predictability and Consequences", Ed. Natalia Buzulukova
Subjects:    Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)
Cite as:    arXiv:1709.03165 [astro-ph.SR] (or arXiv:1709.03165v1 [astro-ph.SR] for this version)
Submission history
From: Nat Gopalswamy 
[v1] Sun, 10 Sep 2017 20:05:41 GMT (1465kb)
https://arxiv.org/abs/1709.03165

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