We report on the masses, sizes, and orbits of the planets orbiting 22 Kepler stars. There are 49 planet candidates around these stars, including 42 detected through transits and 7 revealed by precise Doppler measurements of the host stars.
Based on an analysis of the Kepler brightness measurements, along with high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, Doppler spectroscopy, and (for 11 stars) asteroseismology, we establish low false-positive probabilities for all of the transiting planets (41 of 42 have a false-positive probability under 1%), and we constrain their sizes and masses. Most of the transiting planets are smaller than 3X the size of Earth. For 16 planets, the Doppler signal was securely detected, providing a direct measurement of the planet's mass. For the other 26 planets we provide either marginal mass measurements or upper limits to their masses and densities; in many cases we can rule out a rocky composition.
We identify 6 planets with densities above 5 g/cc, suggesting a mostly rocky interior for them. Indeed, the only planets that are compatible with a purely rocky composition are smaller than ~2 R_earth. Larger planets evidently contain a larger fraction of low-density material (H, He, and H2O).
Comments: 94 pages, 55 figures, 25 tables. Accepted by ApJS
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)
Journal reference: Geoffrey W. Marcy et al. 2014 ApJS 210 20 DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/210/2/20
Cite as: http://arxiv.org/abs/1401.4195 arXiv:1401.4195 [astro-ph.EP]
(or arXiv:1401.4195v1 [astro-ph.EP] for this version)
Submission history From: Howard Isaacson [view email] [v1] Thu, 16 Jan 2014 22:54:55 GMT (2876kb)