NASA ISS On-Orbit Status 13 October 2012


image All ISS systems continue to function nominally, except those noted previously or below. Saturday - Crew half-day duty.

After wakeup, FE-4 Malenchenko performed the routine inspection of the SM (Service Module) PSS Caution & Warning panel as part of regular Daily Morning Inspection.

Yuri also completed the periodic (daily) reboot of the Russian RSS1 & RSS2 laptops.

Akihiko Hoshide completed Day 8 of his current extended session of the ESA ENERGY experiment. Today urine collection and sampling was required (not the first void of the day but before lunch; the urine samples, 4.9 ml volume and not needing cold stowage, were stowed ambient in the Energy Sample Kit, same as for water samples). Also required was the special ENERGY breakfast plus logging of all ISS food & drinks consumed during ENERGY experiment performance from lunch and dinner on Day 1 until breakfast on Day 10. [Aki wears an armband monitor, positioned on the right triceps where it started automatically on skin contact. The instrument must be worn for the entire 10-day ENERGY measurement period and removed only during showers or if needed during blood draws. Activities without the armband monitor on the triceps must be carefully logged. The monitor will be removed at the end of the 10-day period, then data will be downloaded from the device. Background: The observed loss of astronauts' body mass during space flight is partly due to the systematic ongoing negative energy balance in micro-G, in addition to disuse. Unfortunately, the reason for such unbalanced match between intake and output is not clear, but appealing data suggest a relation between the degree of energy deficit and the exercise level prescribed as a countermeasure. In the ENERGY experiment, astronauts are invited to participate in a study that aimed to evaluate how much food is needed for astronauts during long-term space missions. To do so, the science team will measure every component or variable of the astronaut's energy expenditure reflecting his energy needs. Those variables will be measured twice: up to 4 months before flight and after at least 3 months in space but 3 weeks before landing. The changes in the astronaut's energy balance and expenditure will be measured, which will help in deriving an equation for energy requirements in weightlessness. This will contribute to planning adequate, but not excessive cargo supplies for food. Purpose of the ENERGY experiment is (1) to measure changes in energy balance during long term space flight, (2) to measure adaptations in the components of the Total Energy Expenditure TEE (consumption), and (3) to derive an equation for the energy requirements of astronauts. TEE is the sum of resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured), diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT, measured oxygen-uptake minus RMR) and activity-related energy expenditure (AEE, calculated).]

Using the Russian pumping equipment, CDR Williams started the periodic water transfer from the yesterday-degassed CWC-I (Contingency Water Container-Iodinated) to the WPA (Water Processor Assembly) Potable Water Storage Tank via "tee" hose and a freshly installed MRF (Microbial Removal Filter) cartridge as gas trap. The transfer was terminated about 7.5 hrs later. [During the day, with MCC-H monitoring, Suni checked transfer progress and purged gas from the MRF, as required, to allow water to flow from CWC-I to the Potable Water tank.]

Suni Williams, Yuri Malenchenko & Akihiko Hoshide joined in conducting the regular weekly three-hour task of thorough cleaning of their home. ["Uborka", usually done on Saturdays, includes removal of food waste products, cleaning of compartments with vacuum cleaner, damp cleaning of the SM dining table, other frequently touched surfaces and surfaces where trash is collected, as well as the sleep stations with a standard cleaning solution; also, fan screens and grilles are cleaned to avoid temperature rises. Special cleaning is also done every 90 days on the HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) bacteria filters in the Lab.]

As part of Uborka house cleaning, Yuri today completed regular weekly maintenance inspection & cleaning of fan screens in the FGB (TsV2) plus Group E fan grilles in the SM (VPkhO, FS5, FS6, VP), and the grilles of the BMP Harmful Contaminants Removal System and SKV air conditioner in the SM, plus the POTOK-150MK (150 micron) pre-filters of the SM's & FGB's SOGS air revitalization subsystem.

Afterwards, the CDR performed regular (~weekly) inspection & maintenance, as required, of the CGBA-4 (Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus 4) and CGBA-5 payloads in their ERs (EXPRESS Racks) at Lab O2 & O1, focusing on cleaning the muffler air intakes.

In the SpX-1 Dragon capsule, Suni also did the periodic status check on the GLACIER (General Laboratory Active Cryogenic ISS Experiment Refrigerator), ensuring that the freezer is operational and its temperature is as expected.

In JAXA's Kibo lab, Hoshide terminated the MICB (MICROBE-3) experiment, closing down sampling by the ASD (Air Sampling Device) and the Particle Counter attached on the bottom of the Kobairo Rack GHF (Gradient Heating Furnace). [12 AA batteries were marked "used" on Kapton tape and stowed.]

In the US Lab, Williams used the vacuum cleaner on the vents of the T61p OpsLAN Servers LS1 & ISS-SERVER1 in bay O1, to ensure optimal performance.

Sunita also had about an hour set aside for activating and installing the first group of GAPs (Group Activation Packs) of the new Dragon-delivered experiment Micro-6 (Genotypic & Phenotypic Responses of Candida albicans to Spaceflight) payload [Activities involved removing Micro-6 GAPs from Dragon, inserting 7 GAPs (D,F,G,H,I,N,O) into CGBA-1 which was then set up in ER8 (EXPRESS Rack 8). Next, 6 GAPs (B,C,E,J,K,P) were inserted in the activated CGBA-5. In the coming weeks the CDR will be activating, terminating, and transferring GAPs (Group Activation Packs) among CGBA-1 (Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus 1), CGBA-4, and CGBA-5. Specifically, CGBA-5 will be used to incubate the GAPs, CGBA-1 & CGBA-4 will be used to cool GAPs before and after incubation. Background: Fundamental space biology experiments address basic questions of how life responds to gravity and space environments. The experiments probe the fundamental nature of life in order to enhance our understanding of how life responds to physical phenomena and physical forces on Earth and serve as the basic biological foundation in support of exploration. In particular, Micro-6 studies how microgravity affects the health risk posed by the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans. In our bodies, yeasts, especially the yeast Candida albicans help us maintain a healthy personal ecosystem. However, when our immune systems are stressed, Candida albicans can grow out of control. When that happens, yeast become so numerous that infections can result in the mouth, throat, intestines, and genitor-urinary tract. The equipment consists of GAPs stored in a flight-certified incubator at a temperature of 4 degC. Each GAP contains eight FPAs (Fluid Processing Apparatuses) shaped like test tubes but designed to meet the unique requirement of mixing fluids in microgravity. Each FPA contains an isolated amount of the microbial culture of Candida, plus a growth medium and a termination reagent or fixative. During the three-week flight aboard the ISS, a crew member begins the experiment by increasing the incubator temperature to 30 degC, and then activate the FPAs by pushing the plunger to mix the Candida with a growth medium. After 24 or 50 hours depending on the sample, the experiment will be terminated by pushing the plunger deeper into the FPA which combines a fixative agent to effectively stop the growth of the yeast cultures.]

Yuri conducted the routine daily servicing of the SOZh system (Environment Control & Life Support System, ECLSS) in the SM. [Regular daily SOZh maintenance consists, among else, of checking the ASU toilet facilities, replacement of the KTO & KBO solid waste containers, replacement of EDV-SV waste water and EDV-U urine containers and filling EDV-SV, KOV (for Elektron), EDV-ZV & EDV on RP flow regulator.]

Suni again had a time slot/placeholder reserved for making entries in her electronic Journal on the personal SSC. [Required are three journaling sessions per week.]

At ~9:10am EDT, the three crewmembers held the regular WPC (Weekly Planning Conference) with the ground, discussing next week's "Look-Ahead Plan" (prepared jointly by MCC-H and TsUP-Moscow timeline planners), via S-band/audio, reviewing upcoming activities and any concerns about future on-orbit events.

At ~10:40am, Yuri Malenchenko had his weekly PFC (Private Family Conference), via S-band/audio and Ku-band/MS-NetMeeting application (which displays the uplinked ground video on an SSC laptop).

At ~12:55pm, Yuri supported a Russian PAO TV downlink, extending greetings and congratulations from ISS to three events: (1) the 80th Anniversary of K.E. Tsiolkovsky MATI (Moscow State Technology University, (2) the 80th Anniversary of MESI (Moscow State University of Economics, Statistics & Informatics), (3) the 65th Anniversary of the 38th Separate Communications Regiment. [(1) MATI, the Russian State K. E. Tsiolkovsky State Technology University, throughout its history was involved in training of engineers for aviation and space industry. A special event dedicated to celebrating the university's anniversary will take place on 10/19, in the House of Unions Hall of Columns; university alumni, cosmonauts, scientists, MATI faculty and students will participate in this celebration. (2) Currently, more than 70,000 people are studying at MESI's using various education programs. Many graduates of MESI became leaders of largest corporations and institutions, among those are: RF Gazprom, Central Bank of Russia, Rosstat, 1C Company, International Academy of Stock and Commodity Trading "Forex Club", EU-Leasing company. One may run into university alumni at international organizations like UN and UNESCO, at the President's Administration, in Ministries and government agencies. In the course of its existence MESI gained a wide recognition abroad. MESI implements curricula based on bilateral and multilateral cooperation with leading educational institutions, international organizations, science and research centers of Italy, Bulgaria, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, France, USA, Latvia, Abkhazia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and other countries. (3) Airborne Troops 38th separate signal regiment is celebrating its 65th anniversary on 10/20, the professional holiday of Military Communications Specialists.]

At ~2:50pm, Aki Hoshide is scheduled for an amateur/ham radio session with students at Pacificon - ARRL Pacific Division Conference, Santa Clara, CA.

The crew worked out on the TVIS treadmill with vibration isolation & stabilization (FE-4), ARED advanced resistive exercise device (CDR), T2/COLBERT advanced treadmill (CDR, FE-6), and VELO ergometer bike with load trainer (FE-4). [CDR & FE-6 are on the special experimental SPRINT protocol which diverts from the regular 2.5 hrs per day exercise regime and introduces special daily sessions involving resistive and aerobic (interval & continuous) exercise, followed by a USND (Ultrasound) leg muscle self scan in COL. No exercise is being timelined for Suni on Friday, for Aki on Thursday. If any day is not completed, Suni & Aki pick up where they left off, i.e., they would be finishing out the week with the last day of exercise on her off day. Suni's protocol for today showed ARED/T2 (interval), with T2 (int., 2 min.), ARED/CEVIS (cont.), T2 (int., 30 sec.), ARED/CEVIS (cont.) and T2 (int., 4 min.) for the next 5 days. Aki's protocol for today showed T2 (int., 2 min.), with ARED/CEVIS (cont.), T2 (int., 30 sec.), ARED/CEVIS (cont.) and T2 (int., 4 min.) on the following 4 days.]

Tasks listed for FE-4 Malenchenko on the Russian discretionary "time permitting" job for today were -
* More preparation & downlinking of reportages (written text, photos, videos) for the Roskosmos website to promote Russia's manned space program (max. file size 500 Mb),
* A ~30-min. session for Russia's EKON Environmental Safety Agency, making observations and taking KPT-3 aerial photography of environmental conditions on Earth using the NIKON D3X camera with the RSK-1 laptop, and
* A ~30-min. run of the GFI-8 "Uragan" (hurricane) earth-imaging program with the NIKON D3X digital camera with Sigma AF 300-800mm telelens and PI emission platform using the SKPF-U (Photo Image Coordinate Reference System) to record target sites on the Earth surface.

Weekly Science Update (Expedition Thirty-Three - Week 15)

2D NANO Template (JAXA): Mission completed.

3D SPACE: Complete.

ACE-1 (Advanced Colloids Experiment 1, NASA): No report.

ALTCRISS (Alteino Long Term monitoring of Cosmic Rays on the ISS): Complete.

ALTEA SHIELD Shielding (NASA/ASI): On GMT 222, Aki has exchanged the shielding tiles with a second set. The session#2 immediately started afterwards. The two materials being investigated for their shielding capacity on-board are polyethylene (session#1) and Kevlar (session#2). To date, the session#2 has progressed nominally, with 60 cumulative days (of minimal 40 / preferred 60 days) of science acquisition. Though the preferred amount of data acquisition is reached, it is planned to continue measuring until the storage of ALTEA SHIELD. Further data collection is expected to support statistical analyses later on. [Background: Cosmic radiation consists of very small, atomic-sized particles that are flying around in space at tremendous speeds. Their energy is so high that these particles, like tiny bullets, can permeate through the complete structure of the ISS. Exposure of astronauts to cosmic radiation is risky from a medical point of view. The best way to protect our astronauts against cosmic radiation is to build the complete ISS from lead! This would solve the problem but the enormous mass can impossibly be launched into space. Therefore different materials, much lighter than lead, are being tested to be used as shielding materials. Two of those will be investigated in the ALTEA-SHIELD experiment. The effectiveness of the shielding materials will be measured on board by a set of special radiation detectors. Some detectors will be covered with tiles made of shielding materials, some others will not. We are looking forward to find out what difference it will make!"]

Amine Swingbed (NASA): During fault tree analysis, the project determined the root cause for the position sensor anomaly experienced on GMT 175. It was discovered that the set screws that secure the valve drive key on the motor gearbox (launched aboard 30S and installed on GMT163) were not torqued sufficiently. This causes the drive key to slip within the gearbox, thus not rotating the valve fully. The project presented a recovery plan to the Payload Failure Investigation Team (PFIT) and were given the go ahead to implement the plan. This includes tightening the set screws as well as verifying the proximity sensor functions properly. Additionally during ground testing, it was discovered that our payload control software has a minor calculation error that would prohibit successful operation. Independent of the crew procedure, the project is working an updated software load that can be completed from the ground. The project is currently scheduled for the Ops Tagup on 10/19 with the plan to have all ops products complete by the end of October.

AMS-02 (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer): No report.

APEX (Advanced Plant Experiments on Orbit) -Cambium: No report.

APEX-TAGES (Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System): No report.

Asian Seed 2010 (JAXA): Returned on ULF6.

BASS (Burning and Suppression of Solids, NASA): (The BASS hardware has been stowed until we resume tests beginning sometime in December 2012 or January 2013.)
BCAT-6 (Binary Colloidal Alloy Test 6, CSA): No report. [Colloids are particles as small as a few tens of nanometers (a thousandth of a thousandth of a millimeter) that are suspended in a medium, usually a liquid or a gas. The name "colloid" comes from the Greek word for "glue", and expresses very important properties of colloids: when small and light enough, particles can be influenced in their behavior by forces of electromagnetic origin, and make them stick together, or repel each other depending on the configuration. Colloids are widely studied in science because the forces between particles can be controlled and tuned and because particles, while being small enough to be influenced by such forces, are big and slow enough to be seen with a relatively simple and inexpensive laboratory instrument like a microscope. This is why colloids are often studied as model for molecular systems (like standard gases or liquids) where molecules, the individual constituents, are much smaller than colloids and cannot be seen with light. As mentioned, forces between colloids can be tuned giving rise to a rich variety of phenomena. One of them is aggregation, which is when particles stick together and tend to form structures. Among the many ways to induce particle aggregation, one allows to do so by controlling the temperature of the solution in which the particles are immersed, thanks to very weak forces called "critical Casimir forces" that have been predicted more than 30 years ago but just partially verified in experiments. The objective of SODI COLLOID is to measure such forces and produce a controlled aggregation of tiny plastic particles. This would allow to shed light on critical Casimir forces and to make a step towards the fabrication of new nanostructured materials with remarkable optical properties for industrial applications.]

BCAT-C1 (Binary Colloidal Alloy Test C1, CSA): No report.

BLB (Biolab, ESA): No report.

BIORHYTHMS 48 (Biological Rhythms, JAXA): No report.

BISE (Bodies in the Space Environment, CSA): No report.

BISPHOSPHONATES: No report.

BXF-Facility (Boiling eXperiment Facility, NASA): No report.

BXF-MABE (Microheater Array Boiling Experiment, NASA): No report.

BXF-NPBX (Pool Boiling Experiment, NASA): No report.

CARD (Long Term Microgravity Model for Investigating Mechanisms of Heart Disease, ESA): No report.

CARDIOCOG-2: Complete.

CB (JAXA Clean Bench): No report.

CBEF-2 (JAXA Cell Biology Experiment Facility)/SPACE SEED: No report.

CCISS (Cardiovascular & Cerebrovascular Control on Return from ISS): No report.

CERISE (JAXA): No report.

CCF (Capillary Channel Flow, NASA): No report.

CFE-2 (Capillary Flow Experiment 2, NASA): No report.

CFS-A (Colored Fungi in Space-A, ESA): No report.

CSI-5/CGBA-5 (CGBA Science Insert #5/Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus 5): No report.

CGBA-2 (Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus 2): Complete.

CIR (Combustion Integrated Rack), MDCA/Flex: No report.

CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS (ESA): No report.

Commercial (Inc 23&24, JAXA): No report.

Commercial (Inc 25 & 26, JAXA): No report.

Commercial (Inc 32, JAXA): No report.

CSAC (Chip-Scale Atomic Clock, SPHERES): No report.

CSLM-2 (Coarsening in Solid-Liquid Mixtures 2): No report.

CsPins (JAXA): No report.

CubeLab: No report.

CW/CR (Cell Wall/Resist Wall) in EMCS (European Modular Cultivation System): Complete.

DECLIC-ALI (Device for the Study of Critical Liquids & Crystallization-ALICE-like, CNES/NASA): A new experiment sequence was started on 10/8, using DECLIC-ALI insert (ALI7-SC5). This sequence is dedicated to the study of boiling phenomena, by performing heat pulses in the diphasic range, at large distance to Tc. Optical observations are made by direct transmission and using interferometry. Fast rate temperature data acquisition is also used.

DomeGene (JAXA): Complete.

DOSIS (Dose Distribution Inside ISS, ESA): Nominal science acquisition continues with active dosimeters inside Columbus.

DTN (Delay Tolerant Network, NASA): No report.

EarthKAM (Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students): No report.

EDR (European Drawer Rack, ESA): No report.

EKE (Endurance Capacity by Gas Exchange and Heart Rate Kinetics During Physical Training, ESA): No report.

ELITE-S2 (Elaboratore Immagini Televisive - Space 2): Planned.

EMCS (European Modular Cultivation System): No report.

ENERGY (ESA): "Aki, many thanks for your great support during your ENERGY activities in week #2. The science team and the ground teams are delighted that you are coping so well with the science constraints and would like to thank you for that. It's not over yet, but well done and keep on going!". [Background: In the ENERGY experiment, astronauts are invited to participate in a study that aimed to evaluate how much food is needed for astronauts during long-term space missions. To do so, the science team will measure every component or variable of the astronaut's energy expenditure reflecting his energy needs. Those variables will be measured twice: up to 4 months before flight and after at least 3 months in space but 3 weeks before landing. The changes in the astronaut's energy balance and expenditure will be measured, which will help in deriving an equation for energy requirements in weightlessness. This will contribute to planning adequate, but not excessive cargo supplies for food.]

ENose (Electronic Nose): No report.

EPM (European Physiology Module): No report.

EPO (Education Payload Operations, NASA) Demos: No report.

EPO (Educational Payload Operations, NASA) (Eye in the Sky; Sleep 2): No report.

EPO (Educational Payload Operations, NASA) (Sesame Street): No report.

EPO (Educational Payload Operations, NASA) (Kids in Micro-G): No report.

EPO (Educational Payload Operations, NASA) (Earth/Moon/Mars Demo): No report.

EPO (Educational Payload Operations, NASA) (Space Sports): No report.

EPO (Educational Payload Operations, NASA) (ISS Orbit): No report.

EPO (Educational Payload Operations, ESA): No report.

EPO CONVECTIONS (ESA): "No report.

EPO MISSION X (ESA): No report.

EPO Spaceship Earth (ESA): No report.

EPO LES-2 (ESA): No report.

EPO GREENHOUSE (ESA): No report.

EPO 3-min Video (JAXA): No report.

EPO J-Astro Report (JAXA): No report.

EPO Dewey's Forest (JAXA): Closed out on 3/15.

EPO Space Clothes (JAXA): Complete.

EPO Hiten (Dance, JAXA): No report.

EPO Lego Bricks (NASA, JAXA): No report.

EPO Moon Score (JAXA): No report.

EPO OpticSphere & ISSOrbit-Demo (NASA): No report.

EPO Kibo Kids Tour (JAXA): Complete.

EPO Paper Craft (Origami, JAXA): No report.

EPO Poem (JAXA): No report.

EPO-5 SpaceBottle (MIB/Message in a Bottle, JAXA): Bottle was put back into JEM Airlock on GMT 279.

EPO-6 Spiral Top 2 (JAXA): No report.

EPO-7 Doctor Demo (JAXA): No report.

EPO-7 Green Tea Preparation (JAXA): No report.

EPO-7 Ink Ball (JAXA): No report.

EPO-7 Video (JAXA):

EPO-7 Try Zero-G (JAXA): No report.

EPO-8 Space Sakura (JAXA): No report.

EPO-8 Space Musical Instruments (JAXA): No report.

EPO-9 (JAXA): "Aki, thank you for completing JAXA-REPORT05 and 08."

EPO-10/11 (JAXA): "Aki, thank you for JAXA Report 13. Thank you for JAXA Video Taking 05."

ERB-2 (Erasmus Recording Binocular, ESA): [ERB-2 aims are to develop narrated video material for various PR & educational products & events, including a 3D interior station view.] No report.

ETD (Eye Tracking Device): Completed.

FACET-2 (JAXA): No report.

FERULATE (JAXA): No report.

FIR/LMM/CVB (Fluids Integrated Rack / Light Microscopy Module / Constrained Vapor Bubble): No report.

Fish Scales (JAXA): Completed on FD7/ULF-4 and returned on STS-132.

FOAM STABILITY EPO (ESA): No report.

FOCUS: No report.

FSL (Fluid Science Laboratory, ESA): | No report.

FWED (Flywheel Exercise Device, ESA): No report.

GENARA-A (Gravity Regulated Genes in Arabidopsis A/ESA): No report.

GEOFLOW-2 (ESA): Experiment completed! [Background: Everybody is familiar with liquids. In an average day we get to use, handle or drink water or other liquids. And everybody knows how fluids (that is liquids and gases) behave: when subjected to a net force, may be pressure, a temperature difference or gravity, they can move freely. Scientists have been studying how fluids move for centuries, and managed to write mathematical formulas that can describe and predict such movements. Unfortunately, these equations are extremely complex and only approximate solutions are known. As a result, our quantitative understanding of fluid movement is just partial. This is especially true for natural phenomena where the forces can be enormous and unpredictable, like in oceans or in the atmosphere, or the interior of the earth, where rocks are exposed to pressures and temperatures so incredibly high that they slowly move and adapt their shape. That is, over hundreds of years rocks flow just like a very viscous liquid. Scientists try to study such flows but cannot observe them directly due to the fact that they take place deep beneath the surface of our planet. The only way is to have computers simulating those movements starting from the equations, but how to check whether computers are correct? This is what Geoflow II is trying to answer on board the International Space Station. Geoflow II is a miniature planet that has some of its essential ingredients: a fluid can freely move inside a spherical container that rotates, has temperature differences and has a simulated gravity directed towards the centre just like in a real planet. By taking pictures of the fluid movements, scientists are able to understand the essential characteristics of the flows and determine whether computer simulations are correct or whether they need to be refined and improved towards a better understanding of the elusive movements that take place inside our planet.]

GLACIER (General Laboratory Active Cryogenic ISS Experiment Refrigerator, NASA): No report.

HAIR (JAXA): No report.

HDTV System (JAXA): No report.

Hicari (JAXA): No report.

Holter ECG (JAXA): No report.

HQPC (JAXA): No report.

HREP (HICO/Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean & RAIDS/Remote Atmospheric & Ionospheric Detection System/JAXA): HICO has taken 6597 images to-date. The most recent HICO images include the coast of New Caledonia, part of New Zealand's coastline, part of Argentina's coastline and part of South Africa's coast. RAIDS is continuing to collect secondary Science data including nighttime atmospheric disk photometry, spectra and temperatures. Extreme Ultra Violet airglow spectroscopy and optical contamination studies will also be performed.

HRF-1 (Human Research Facility 1, NASA): No report.

HydroTropi (Hydrotropism & Auxin-Inducible Gene Expression in Roots Grown under Microgravity Conditions/JAXA): No report.

ICE CRYSTAL (JAXA): Complete.

ICV (Integrated Cardiovascular): "Aki, we are happy to report that both days of your recent Holter data consisted of heartbeats rather than square waves! A square wave is typically seen when the harness is not connected to the monitor so we suspect that connection was loose at the time you noted that signature. We will continue to investigate, but that appears to be the most likely culprit and it was rectified prior to starting data collection on the second day."

IMMUNO (Neuroendocrine & Immune Responses in Humans During & After Long Term Stay at ISS; RS): No report.

INTEGRATED IMMUNE: No report.

InSPACE-3 (Investigating the Structure of Paramagnetic Aggregates from Colloidal Emulsions 3): "Suni: Thank you for the great start with InSPACE-3 run #1, and thank you for your willingness to run the experiment on a crew holiday. This run was a good opportunity to learn more about how our samples have aged since they left our laboratory and how they behave in the magnetic fields. Our initial observations of the data we collected look exciting. We saw the aggregates contract when the pulse was off, which was unexpected and interesting. We are looking forward to studying the larger parameter space during this science increment."

IRIS (Image Reversal in Space, CSA): No report.

ISS Amateur/Ham Radio: No report.

ISSAC (ISS Agricultural Camera, NASA): ISSAC is currently capturing their Secondary Science imagery.

IV Gen (Intravenous Fluids Generation): No report.

JOURNALS (Behavioral Issues Associated with Isolation and Confinement, NASA): No report. [Studies conducted on Earth have shown that analyzing the content of journals and diaries is an effective method for identifying the issues that are most important to a person. The method is based on the reasonable assumption that the frequency that an issue or category of issues is mentioned in a journal reflects the importance of that issue or category to the writer. The tone of each entry (positive, negative, or neutral) and phase of the expedition also are variables of interest. Study results will lead to recommendations for the design of equipment, facilities, procedures, and training to help sustain behavioral adjustment and performance during long-duration space expeditions to the ISS, asteroids, the Moon, Mars, and beyond. Results from this study could help to improve the behavioral performance of people living and working under a variety of conditions here on Earth.]

KUBIK 3/6, KID (ESA): No report.

LMM/PACE-2 (Light Microscopy Module / Preliminary Advanced Colloids Experiment): No report.

LEGO Bricks: No report.

LOCAD-PTS (Lab-on-a-Chip Application Development-Portable Test System): No report.

MAMS (Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System, NASA): No report.

Marangoni Exp. (JAXA): No report.

Marangoni DSD - Dynamic Surf (JAXA): Payload name was change from Marangoni DSD to Dynamic Surf.

Marangoni UVP (JAXA): No report.

MARES (Muscle Atrophy Research & Exercise System, ESA/NASA): No report.

Matryoshka-2 (RSA): No report.

MAXI (Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image, JAXA): External payload. Continuing telemetry monitoring. VSC raw image data downloaded on 9/24 and 9/26.

MCE (Multi-Mission Consolidated Equipment, JAXA): Ground team continued SIMPLE (inflatable structure) and HDTV operation.

MDCA/Flex-2: In an effort to save crew time, the CIR team has begun conducting test points with the alignment guides installed on the rack.

Medaka Osteoklast (JAXA): No report.

MEIS (Marangoni Experiment for ISS) in JAXA FPEF (Fluid Physics Experiment Facility): No report.

MELFI (Minus Eighty Laboratory Freezer for ISS, NASA): No report.

Microbe-3 (JAXA): "Aki, thank you for Air Sampling before SpX-1 docking on GMT 283."

Micro-G Clay (JAXA EPO): Complete.

Miscible Fluids in Microgravity (MFMG): No report.

MISSE-8 (Materials ISS Experiment 8): MISSE-8 is nominal. PASCAL performed nominal commanding that produced IV curves of the solar cells. IV curves are plots of the current versus voltage for solar cells and tell a lot about how these are performing. The SpaceCube experiment is continuing to run code for new radiation hardening by software.

MMA (JAXA/Microgravity Measurement Apparatus): No report.

MPAC/SEED (JAXA): No report.

MSG (Microgravity Science Glovebox, NASA): No report.

MSG-SAME (Microgravity Science Glovebox -Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment): No report.

MSPR (Multi-Purpose Small Payload Rack, JAXA): No report.

MSL (Materials Science Laboratory, ESA): Three processed Sample Cartridge Assemblies (SCA's) have been returned with SpX-D.

MTR-2 (Russian radiation measurements): Passive dosimeters measurements in DC-1 "Pirs".

MULTIGEN-1: Completed.

MYCO 3 (JAXA): On 9/22, Mike and Satoshi completed sample collection.

MyoLab (JAXA): Completed on 4/20.

NanoRacks (NASA): "Suni, thanks for the work on NanoRacks Module 9. The experiments contained in the tubes you activated on GMT 285 are as follows: s/n 1005, tube 6 - Effects of Uric Acid on Bone Deterioration; s/n 1005, tube 12 - Carbon Epoxy Curing in Space; sn/1005, tube 14 - Seed Sprouting in Space; s/n 1006, tube 2 - Microgravity Wine; s/n 1006, tube 3 - Bone Mass; s/n 1006, tube 4 - Hay Bacillus; s/n 1006, tube 5 - Curli Producing E. coli; s/n 1006, tube 11 - Bioscaffolds; s/n 1006, tube 13 - Bone Density; s/n 1006, tube 15 - Soy Beans; The experiments contained in the tubes you activated on GMT 286 are as follows: s/n 1005, tube 1 - Effect of Microgravity on the Formation of Silly Putty; s/n 1005, tube 3 - Shmooing around in Space; s/n 1006, tube 1 - P. aeruginosa."

NANOSKELETON (Production of High Performance Nanomaterials in Microgravity, JAXA): No report.

NANO STEP (JAXA): Run #2 started on GMT 274 and will last for 35 days.

NEURORAD (JAXA): No report.

NEUROSPAT (ESA/Study of Spatial Cognition, Novelty Processing and Sensorimotor Integration): No report. [During microgravity stay, the human body goes through multitude of physiological changes in order to accommodate to the new environment. As the brain is a master organ where major crucial processes take place, it is fundamental to understand how it manages adaptation for living in Space. One of the main purposes of Neurospat (NES) experiment is to focus on how microgravity environment influences cerebral activity of astronauts aboard ISS. For this, the global electrical activity of the brain of the astronaut is measured thanks to electroencephalogram (EEG) technique, while he or she is executing specific tasks through a computer as if it was a kind of videogame. In practice, the astronaut is wearing a specially equipped cap with passive, gel filled electrodes that are in contact with his/her scalp while he or she is performing the specific tasks that we have designed. These are visual-orientation perception and visuo-motor tracking tasks that may be encountered on a daily basis. The tasks allow the study of 5 cognitive processes: Perception, Attention, Memorization, Decision and Action. Besides there are also task-irrelevant images that are showed to the astronaut in order to assess how well he or she processes novel visual stimuli. The electrodes all over the scalp are linked to sensitive amplifiers that allow us to measure small variations of electrical potential between different regions of the scalp. These signals are in turn used to estimate activity in the cerebral cortex related to the task being performed. Also, they serve to identify the mental processes associated with these tasks and to localize in the brain the sources of the underlying neural activity. After analysis of the data we can better understand whether the novel environment of microgravity accompanied by a multitude of stressors may place an increased load on the cognitive capacity of the human brain and whether the sensory signals and motor responses of astronauts are processed and interpreted differently because a new reference frame.]

NightPod (ESA): No report.

NOA-1/-2 (Nitric Oxide Analyzer, ESA): Complete.

NUTRITION w/REPOSITORY/ProK: No report.

ODK-2 (Onboard Diagnostic Kit 2, JAXA): No report.

PADIAC (Pathway Different Activators, ESA): No report.

PADLES (JAXA, Area PADLES 6/7; Passive Area Dosimeter for Lifescience Experiment in Space): No report.

PASSAGES (JAXA): No report. [PASSAGES is an experiment about the strategies involved in the perception of the world around us. Seeing correctly the world is necessary to success our gestures, our actions, such as catching a ball, stepping an obstacle on the ground or passing through an opened door. In this experiment, we want to know if the strategies involved on Earth continue to be used when the astronaut is in a weightlessness environment for a long period. To investigate this question, the participant sees 3D scenes on the screen of a laptop such as a video game. The scene is a room with an opening which can vary in width. The task of the participant is to decide if yes or no he or she could pass through the aperture without rotating or scrunching the shoulders. The science team uses typical methods from psychophysics and manipulates several factors to highlight the strategies used by the participant. Then, the science team will compare the performances obtained on ground with those obtained onboard.]

PCDF-PU (Protein Crystallization Diagnostic Facility - Process Unit): No report.

PCG (JAXA, Protein Crystal Growth): Mission completed last week.

PCRF (Protein Crystallization Research Facility) Reconfiguration (JAXA): See PCG.

PLSG (Plant Signaling, NASA/ESA): No report.

PMDIS (Perceptual Motor Deficits in Space): Complete.

POLCA/GRAVIGEN (ESA): Complete.

Portable PFS: No report.

Pro K: No report.

RadGene & LOH (JAXA): Complete.

RadSilk (JAXA): No report.

Reaction Self Test (RST/Psychomotor Vigilance Self Test on the ISS): "Suni and Aki, thank you for your continued participation with Reaction Self Test, your efforts are greatly appreciated! The software has not worked on SSC4 for quite some time and we would like to continue to ask crews not to use that computer for Reaction Self testing for the time being. Due to your recent report to PLUTO about starting it on SSC4, we will re-investigate with PLUTO the possibility of fixing this problem."

REBR-2 (Re-Entry Breakup Recorder 2, JAXA): No report.

Reversible Figures (ESA): No report. [Background: The objective of this study is to understand the relationship between gravity and depth perception. Another objective is to identify the problems associated with depth and distance perception in astronauts with the goal of developing countermeasures to reduce any associated performance alteration. This experiment investigates cases in which what astronauts might think to see, fails to achieve a correct representation of the environment, namely, optical illusions. Ten ambiguous figures, with or without depth cues, are presented to an astronaut in virtual reality goggles. These figures are ambiguous because they can be seen at first sight in two different ways. The figure does not change, but after some time the brain reverses (flip-flops) its interpretation. The astronaut is asked to look closely at each figure and to indicate with a mouse trackball which view he/she sees first, and when the view flip-flops. The interval between the views will be compared between 1g and 0g conditions. In 0g, the astronaut will do the test while free-floating to eliminate all orientation cues. This experiment will be performed three times pre-flight, then up to six times in-flight, and again three times post-flight. The science team will then compare the results of these tests across these gravitational environments. It is expected that the frequency of flip-flops of figures with depth cues will be different in between 0g and 1g, and that an adaptation to long-term exposure to weightlessness, as well as a re-adaptation to Earth gravity, will take place.]

ROALD-2 (Role of Apoptosis in Lymphocyte Depression 2, ESA): No report. [Background: The ROALD-2 experiment studies how the function of T-cells from the immune system are affected by microgravity and spaceflight. T-cells play an important role in controlling the immune systems response to infection. It has previously been shown that the immune response of astronauts can be reduced following spaceflight and it has also been shown that the activation of T-cells in culture is reduced in microgravity. A series of experiments on T-cells and other immune system cells have been previously performed by different scientific teams on Space Shuttle and the ISS over the last 30 years. The data from these individual experiments provides information which together can be used to understand the mechanisms by which gravity or the absence of gravity can affect T-cell function.]

Robonaut (NASA): No report.

RRM (Robotic Refuelling Mission, NASA): In standby mode, awaiting the next task/run, refueling. [The RRM investigation demonstrates and tests the tools, technologies and techniques needed to robotically service and refuel satellites in space, especially satellites not originally designed to be serviced. RRM is expected to reduce risks and lay the foundation for future robotic servicing missions in microgravity.]

RYUTAI Rack (JAXA): No report.

SAIBO Rack (JAXA): No report.

SAMS/MAMS (Space & Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems): No report.

SAMPLE: Complete.

SCaN (Space Communications and Navigation Testbed, NASA): No report. [Background: The SCaN Testbed provides an orbiting laboratory on space station for the development of SDR (Software Defined Radio) technology. These systems will allow researchers to conduct a suite of experiments over the next several years, enabling the advancement of a new generation of space communications. The testbed is the first space hardware to provide an experimental laboratory to demonstrate many new capabilities, including new communications, networking and navigation techniques that utilize SDR technology. The SCaN Testbed includes three such radio devices, each with different capabilities. These devices will be used by researchers to advance this technology over the Testbed's five year planned life in orbit. Two SDRs were developed under cooperative agreements with General Dynamics and Harris Corp., and the third was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, Calif. JPL also provided the five-antenna system on the exterior of the testbed, used to communicate with NASA's orbiting communications relay satellites and NASA ground stations across the United States.]

SCOF (Solution Crystallization Observation Facility, JAXA): No report.

SEDA-AP (Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment-Attached Payload, JAXA): Continuing telemetry monitoring.

SHD (Space Headaches, ESA): No report. [Background: The neurologists from Leiden University want to study the question whether the astronauts, while in space, suffer from the headaches. With the help of simple questionnaires the astronauts will register the headache episodes and the eventual accompanying symptoms. The results will hopefully help to characterize the frequency and characteristics of space headache and to develop countermeasure to prevent/minimize headache occurrence during the space flight.]

SHERE II (Shear History Extensional Rheology Experiment II): No report.

SLAMMD (Space Linear Acceleration Mass Measurement Device): No report.

SLEEP (Sleep-Wake Actigraphy & Light Exposure during Spaceflight): No report.

SLICE (Structure & Liftoff In Combustion Experiment): No report. [See under BASS.]

SMILES (JAXA): External payload. Continuing telemetry monitoring.

SODI/IVIDIL (Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument/Influence of Vibration on Diffusion in Liquids, ESA): No report.

SODI/COLLOID (Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument/Colloid): No report.

SODI-DSC (Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument/Diffusion & Soret Coefficient, ESA): No report. [Background: Fluids and gases are never at rest. This statement is in apparent contradiction with our experience: when we pour water in a glass and wait until all flows have disappeared and the temperature of the liquid is in equilibrium with that of the room, we see that water appears to be completely at rest. However, if we were able to see the individual molecules of water with a very powerful microscope, we would discover that they are incessantly moving and collide with each other following frantic, random paths even if the liquid appears to be quiescent at naked eye. Scientists are interested in observing and measuring such movements because they reveal important, practical information: how fast does heat propagates in a fluid? How fast do liquid mixtures mix? Such phenomena occur in absence of a macroscopic flow, that is when the fluid appears to be at rest, and are called heat and mass diffusion respectively. While the theoretical prediction of heat and mass diffusion is still quite challenging, its measurement is a standard laboratory practice, but may become extremely difficult or impossible when dealing with mixtures of many liquids, due to the fact that such measurement needs to be carried out when the fluid is quiescent, a condition sometimes impossible to achieve on ground. This is precisely the objective of the SODI DSC experiment carried out on board the International Space Station: the measurement of diffusion in mixtures of liquids. By using very sensitive optical techniques, it will be possible to measure mass diffusion, compare with current theories, and improve our present understanding of how molecules move in liquid mixtures. The results will be used by the large team of scientists involved in the project to try to understand which of the many existing theories for mass diffusion is correctly predicting the experimental behavior.]

SOLAR (Solar Monitoring Observatory, ESA): Out of Sun Visibility Window (SVW). A nominal SOLSPEC calibration was performed on GMT283.

SOLO (Sodium Loading in Microgravity): No report.

Space-DRUMS (Space Dynamically Responding Ultrasonic Matrix System): No report.

Space Food (JAXA): No report.

SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellite): No report.

SPHINX (SPaceflight of Huvec: an Integrated eXperiment, ESA): No report.

SPICE (Smoke Point In Co-flow Experiment): No report.

SPINAL (Spinal Elongation): No report.

SPRINT: "Suni, great job working through your leg scan this week. The PI is looking over the data now and looks forward to sharing the information with you."

SSD (Small Satellite Deployer, JAXA): "Aki, congratulations for the successful deployment of the micro satellites on GMT 278. The rest of the satellites were also successfully deployed from ground commanding. Here is the status of the micro satellites: 1. FITSAT-1: Healthy. Receiving CW beacon with HK data. Succeeded in commanding. http://www.fit.ac.jp/news/archives/666 2. WE WISH: Healthy. Receiving CW beacon and SSTV emission. 3. RAIKO: Receiving S-band telemetry data."

SS-HDTV (Super Sensitivity High Definition Camera, JAXA): Mission completed.

STP-H3 (Space Test Program - Houston 3): All STP-H3 experiments are functional and are in a nominal configuration. MHTEX is currently in a priming operation for the Capillary Pumped Loop (CPL) in preparation for additional testing. VADER continues to characterize the performance of the Aerogel blanket attached to the backside of the experiment. Canary captured data during the SpaceX-1 rendezvous and berthing with ISS on Day 284. DISC took new images this week and continues to process images that were taken in previous weeks.

SWAB (Characterization of Microorganisms & Allergens in Spacecraft): No report.

TASTE IN SPACE (ESA): No report.

THERMOLAB (ESA): No report.

TRAC (Test of Reaction & Adaptation Capabilities): Planned.

TREADMILL KINEMATICS: "Thank you Suni! Two more left if crewtime permits."
TRIPLELUX-B (ESA): No report.

ULTRASOUND: Planned.

UMS (Urine Monitoring System (NASA): No report.

VASCULAR (CSA): No report.

VCAM (Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Module, NASA): No report.

VESSEL ID System (ESA): Nominal data acquisition with the NorAIS receiver. [Background: As the ISS circles Earth, it has been tracking individual ships crossing the seas beneath. An investigation hosted by ESA in COL module has been testing the viability of monitoring global maritime traffic from the station's orbit hundreds of kilometers above since June 2010. The ship-detection system being tested is based on the AIS (Automatic Identification System), the marine equivalent of the air traffic control system. Astronauts were instrumental in enabling the COLAIS experiment, which is an in-orbit demonstration project of ESA's General Support Technology Program. COL was not originally outfitted with VHF antennas to capture the AIS signals; they were installed on the outside of the module during a spacewalk in November 2009, with the remaining piece of hardware, the ERNOBox control computer, installed inside COL along with the NORAIS receiver in May 2010.- The two operational phases with the first receiver from Norway, or NORAIS, which is operated by FFI/Norway, have been extremely successful, with data telemetry received by the N-USOC, in Trondheim, Norway, via ESA's COL-CC in Germany. Data has been received by NORAIS in almost continuous operation, and all modes of operation have worked extremely well. On a good day, approximately 400,000 ship position reports are received from more than 22,000 different ship identification numbers (Maritime Mobile Service Identity, or MMSI). -- The NORAIS Receiver has a sample mode that can collect the raw signal, digitize it and send it to ground for analysis of signal quality, which is proving very helpful in making additional improvements/ refinements to the system. This is used both to investigate the signal environment and to evaluate the performance of new receiver technologies on the ground. Several hundred data sets have been collected and processed with new candidate algorithms for next generation receivers.-- From the assessment of these data sets, an updated version of the decoder algorithm has been worked. The development benefits from the investigations of the sampled data and ongoing work in other ESA projects. The firmware was uploaded to the NORAIS Receiver through the station's communications network. This upgrade #1 ("NORAIS Receiver FPGA firmware v18"), was activated on 1/20/2012.-- The on-orbit data of the NORAIS Receiver v18 have been analyzed since and show very good results. The teams are confident in the operation and performance of v18 and have now preliminary results of the comparison of the performance of the upgraded NORAIS Receiver (v18) relative to the version operated prior to the upgrade (v16).-- Changes of the signal environment on ISS can influence the number of correctly decoded messages, which makes it important to compare the results of this upgrade to a period running the old algorithm with a similar background level.-- The daily averages are calculated for 11 days for both receiver versions. For the upgrade, the period considered for comparison is 1/21-1/31/2012, which are the first 11 days of operation. When selecting the period for the reference data it was important to find a period with the same background signal level as the 11 days with the upgraded NORAIS Receiver. The period from 11/27 - 12/7/2011 was. Even though the two 11 day periods are 45 days apart, the ship traffic should not be very different around the world, except for some regions in the north that may be hampered by sea ice.-- The performance has been studied as the average number of decoded messages per day for the current upgrade v18 of the firmware and the original NORAIS Receiver software. The improvement is the ratio of these numbers (so average numbers of messages per day before the upgrade divided by number of messages after the upgrade). The number of messages from ships in various geographic areas shows a variation in the ratio of messages from 1.2 to 2.0, whereas the ratio of MMSI's ranges from 1.1 to 1.9. The improvement in the Mediterranean is almost a factor of 2.0 in number of messages, and more than 1.6 in number of distinct ships per day. The improvement in other high-traffic zones, at the Gulf of Mexico and East Asia, is even higher.]

VESSEL IMAGING (ESA): No report. [Background: It is known that the ability of blood vessels to vasoconstrict - the ability of the muscular vessel wall to narrow the diameter of the blood vessel - is impaired during and after a human has been in space. "Vessel Imaging" is using the Ultrasound scanner on board the ISS to take images of the five different blood vessels in the lower abdomen and in the legs to study what changes occur to cause the blood vessels to be less able to vasoconstrict. For each vessel, a 5 second scan is performed to observe the blood vessel during several heart beats, followed by a scan where the ultrasound scan-head is tilted to allow a "cut through the blood vessel wall". The same scans are also performed before flight, and these pre-flight images are used as the baseline to which the in-flight data is compared with. The images are analyzed to detect any changes in the blood vessel wall properties, such as wall thickness, elasticity or structure, changes in the size of the blood vessel or blood flow (volume) while the crewmember is in orbit.]

VIABLE (eValuatIon And monitoring of microBiofiLms insidE the ISS Payload Touch, NASA): No report.

VO2max (NASA): No report.

VLE (Video Lessons ESA): No report.

WAICO #1/#2 (Waving and Coiling of Arabidopsis Roots at Different g-levels; ESA): No report.

YEAST B (ESA): No report.

YOUTUBE SpaceLab: No report.

CEO (Crew Earth Observation): Through 10/9 the ground has received 3,815 of ISS CEO frames from Expedition 33 for review and cataloging. "We are pleased to report that we have received imagery this week with camera times corresponding to our CEO target request times as follows: Kunene River Fan, Namibia-Angola - 36 frames; Matavai Bay, Tahiti - 49 frames - target acquired - clouds present - under evaluation for content; SW. Glaciers-SPIF - 72 frames in three sessions - target acquired - very cloudy - under evaluation for content; Chiloe Island, S. Chile - 98 frames in two sessions - target acquired - mapping session under evaluation for completeness; South Desolation Pt., Chile - 44 frames - target not acquired; Kerguelen Islands, Indian Ocean - 75 frames target acquired - too cloudy; NW. Glaciers-NPIF - 1 frame - target not acquired; and Mbabane, Swaziland - 54 frames - target not acquired - good try - shot Mbombela, 70 miles north. Thank you for your enthusiastic response to our target requests - the number of requested frames of imagery received for the first month of an increment (1,520) exceeds all previous ISS missions! Your oddly colored view of Salar de Coipasa, Bolivia was published on the NASA/GSFC Earth Observatory website this past weekend. Your nicely framed view of the northern portion of this large salt flat, both highlights features and characterizes the natural processes of this high-altitude basin in almost surreal colors. Nice shot!"

CEO (Crew Earth Observation) targets uplinked for today were Lilongwe, Malawi (CAPITAL CITIES COLLECTION SITE: ISS had a mid-afternoon pass for this target that lies just right of track in partly cloudy weather. This capital city of nearly 1 million is located in a plateau region southwest of Lake Malawi. At this time, as ISS approached from the SW, the crew was to try to spot this urban area and acquire all of it within a single frame), Buenos Aires, Argentina (CAPITAL CITIES COLLECTION SITE: ISS had a midday pass with clear weather expected for this sprawling capital city of nearly 3 million located on the SW shore of the broad estuary of the Rio de la Plata. At this time begin looking near nadir for this target and try to acquire the entire urban area within a single frame), Lake Poopo, Bolivia (ISS approached this high-elevation, interior basin target from the SW. The effects of the past La Nina episode are being felt markedly in the high Andes and a new El Nino episode is now beginning. Lake Poopo fluctuates greatly under the influence of the El Nino/La Nina cycle. Comparative images show the changes in Lake Poopo during a prior La Nina. ISS had an excellent, midday pass in clear weather for context views, just left of track, to document water levels in Lake Poopo and the bright nearby dry lakebeds [salars]), and Caracas, Venezuela (WORLD CAPITALS COLLECTION SITE: ISS had partly cloudy weather for this mid-afternoon pass with this target near nadir. Like many Latin American cities in the tropics, Caracas with a population of 1.8 million lies at cooler higher altitudes inland from the coast. At this time as you approach the coast of the Caribbean Sea from the southwest, the crew was to try for single-frame views of the city).

ISS Orbit (as of this morning, 9:01am EDT [= epoch])
Mean altitude - 414.6 km
Apogee height - 426.4 km
Perigee height - 402.7 km
Period -- 92.86 min.
Inclination (to Equator) -- 51.65 deg
Eccentricity -- 0.0017465
Solar Beta Angle -- 34.0 deg (magnitude decreasing)
Orbits per 24-hr. day -- 15.51
Mean altitude loss in the last 24 hours -- 57 m
Revolutions since FGB/Zarya launch (Nov. 98) -- 79,640
Time in orbit (station) -- 5076 days
Time in orbit (crews, cum.) -- 4363 days.

Significant Events Ahead (all dates Eastern Time and subject to change):
-------------- Inc-33: Three-crew operations -------------
10/17/12 -- ISS Reboost (1-burn/two SM engines) - (11:23am EDT)
10/23/12 -- Soyuz TMA-06M/32S launch - K.Ford (CDR-34)/O.Novitsky/E.Tarelkin (6:51am EDT)
10/25/12 -- Soyuz TMA-06M/32S docking - (~8:40am EDT)
-------------- Inc-33: Six-crew operations -------------
10/28/12 - SpX-1 Dragon unberthing (?)
10/31/12 -- Progress M-17M/49P launch
10/31/12 -- Progress M-17M/49P docking
11/18/12 -- Soyuz TMA-05M/31S undock/landing - (7:00pm/10:00pm EDT) (End of Increment 33)
-------------- Inc-34: Three-crew operations -------------
12/05/12 -- Soyuz TMA-07M/33S launch - C.Hadfield (CDR-35)/T.Mashburn/R.Romanenko
12/07/12 -- Soyuz TMA-07M/33S docking
-------------- Inc-34: Six-crew operations -------------
02/11/13 -- Progress M-16M/48P undocking
02/12/13 -- Progress M-18M/50P launch
02/14/13 -- Progress M-18M/50P docking
03/15/13 -- Soyuz TMA-06M/32S undock/landing (End of Increment 34)
-------------- Inc-35: Three-crew operations -------------
04/02/13 -- Soyuz TMA-08M/34S launch - P.Vinogradov (CDR-36)/C.Cassidy/A.Misurkin
04/04/13 -- Soyuz TMA-08M/34S docking
04/23/13 -- Progress M-18M/50P undock/landing
-------------- Inc-35: Six-crew operations -------------
05/16/13 -- Soyuz TMA-07M/33S undock/landing (End of Increment 35)
-------------- Inc-36: Three-crew operations -------------
05/29/13 -- Soyuz TMA-09M/35S launch - M.Suraev (CDR-37)/K.Nyberg/L.Parmitano
05/31/13 -- Soyuz TMA-09M/35S docking
-------------- Inc-36: Six-crew operations -------------
09/xx/13 -- Soyuz TMA-08M/34S undock/landing (End of Increment 36)
-------------- Inc-37: Three-crew operations -------------
09/xx/13 -- Soyuz TMA-10M/36S launch - M.Hopkins/TBD (CDR-38)/TBD
09/xx/13 -- Soyuz TMA-10M/36S docking
-------------- Inc-37: Six-crew operations -------------
11/xx/13 -- Soyuz TMA-09M/35S undock/landing (End of Increment 37)
-------------- Inc-38: Three-crew operations -------------
11/xx/13 -- Soyuz TMA-11M/37S launch - K.Wakata (CDR-39)/R.Mastracchio/TBD
11/xx/13 -- Soyuz TMA-11M/37S docking
-------------- Inc-38: Six-crew operations -------------
03/xx/14 -- Soyuz TMA-10M/36S undock/landing (End of Increment 38)
-------------- Inc-39: Three-crew operations -------------

Please follow SpaceRef on Twitter and Like us on Facebook.