Details of NASA's FY 2002 Budget

Press Release From: White House
Posted: Monday, April 9, 2001

The Budget for Fiscal Year 2002: Space flight, research, and supporting activities:

Function and Program 2000
Science, aeronautics
and technology
4,964 5,663 6,302 7,249 7,961 8,358 8,701
Human space flight 5,488 5,451 7,296 6,881 6,545 6,439 6,494
Mission support 2,069 2,191----------
Other NASA programs 20 23 24 25 25 26 26
Total, Space flight,
research, and
supporting activities
12,541 13,328 13,622 14,155 14,531 14,823 15,221

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

The budget proposes $13.6 billion for NASA activities in this function. NASA serves as the lead Federal agency for R&D in civil space activities, working to expand frontiers in air and space to serve America and improve the quality of life on Earth. To carry out these activities, NASA pursues this vision through balanced investment in five enterprises: Space Science, Earth Science, Biological and Physical Research, Aero-Space Technology, and Human Exploration and Development of Space.

NASA's achievements in 2000 included: launching Terra, the first mission in the Earth Observing System series of spacecraft; discovering potential evidence of recent liquid water flows on the surface of Mars from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft; securing the arrival of the Shoemaker Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous mission at the asteroid Eros, the first spacecraft ever to orbit an asteroid; and continuing successful assembly of the International Space Station in orbit.

Space Science: Space Science programs, for which the budget proposes $2.8 billion, are designed to enhance our understanding of how the universe was created, what fundamental rules govern its evolution, how stars and planets evolve and die, how space phenomena affect Earth, and the possible existence of life beyond Earth. In 2000, NASA developed and launched Hubble Servicing Mission 3A, the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Expansion mission, and contributions to the X-ray Multi-Mirror and Cluster-2 missions, with an average one-percent cost overrun. The High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager mission and the Thermal, Ionosphere, and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics mission did not launch as planned in 2000 due to spacecraft development issues and launch vehicle delays. The Mars Polar Lander mission was lost when it did not land successfully on Mars as planned in 2000. Although scheduled to launch in 2000, the High-Energy Transient Explorer mission was launched shortly after the end of the year.

For 2000, the NASA Advisory Council, an independent panel, indicated that 34 of 65 performance plan objectives and 18 of 19 science objectives for Space Science have been successfully met. In 2002:

  • NASA will successfully complete its performance goal for design and development of projects to support future Space Science research. These development projects represent near-term investments that will allow future research in pursuit of the strategic plan's science objectives. Completion will be demonstrated by a successful rating from the NASA Advisory Council or an equivalent senior-level external review committee. This rating will be based on achievement of six of the eight pre-determined performance objectives, four of which address launch readiness for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, the Comet Nucleus Tour mission, and the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 3B.

  • NASA's annual performance goals in support of strategic plan Space Science objectives will be rated as being successfully met by NASA's Advisory Council or an equivalent senior-level external review committee. Examples of these objectives include: learn how galaxies, stars, and planets form, interact, and evolve; understand the formation and evolution of the Solar System and the Earth within it; and understand our changing Sun and its effects throughout the Solar System. Each of these performance goals calls for obtaining at least 80 percent of the expected scientific data from operating missions that support the relevant science objective.

  • NASA will continue to expand the integration of education and enhanced public understanding within its Space Science research and flight mission programs. Performance objectives in support of this effort call for Space Science-funded education and public outreach activities for every funded Space Science mission, which will result in projects in at least 40 States. These projects will range from elementary schools to graduate students and post-graduates. In addition, Space Science will ensure that Enterprise-funded projects are underway in Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Hispanic Serving Institutions, and Tribal Colleges.

Earth Science: Earth Science programs, for which the budget proposes $1.5 billion, focus on the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment through long-term, space-based observation of Earth's land, oceans, and atmospheric processes. In 2000, NASA successfully launched five spacecraft (Terra, ACRIMSAT, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, and two National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather satellites (GOES-L, NOAA-L)), and delivered four instruments to international spacecraft, with an average seven-percent cost overrun. Launches of spacecraft expected in 2001 have been delayed: Aqua until no earlier than July 2001, IceSAT until December 2001, and Triana pending shuttle availability. Users have routinely received earth science data products within five days of receipt or production of the requested data product.

The NASA Advisory Council concluded that 43 of 47 Earth Science performance targets were successfully met. In 2002:

  • NASA will successfully launch and operate at least two of three planned spacecraft, IceSAT, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment and the Solar Radiation and Cli-mate Experiment within 10 percent of their schedules and budgets. For those spacecraft already successfully launched, NASA Earth Science will obtain at least 80 percent of the expected scientific data;

  • NASA will increase by 50 percent the volume of climate data it archives over the 2001 target of 442 terabytes, increase the number of products delivered from its archives by 10 percent over the 2001 target of 5.4 million products delivered, and make the data available to users within five days; and,

  • NASA's Advisory Council will be able to rate all near-term Earth Science objectives as being met or on schedule. Examples of these objectives include: observe and document land cover and land use change and impacts on sustained resource productivity; and understand the causes and impacts of long-term climate variations on global and regional scales.

Aero-Space Technology: Aero-Space Technology programs, for which the budget pro- poses $1.5 billion, work with other NASA enterprises, industry, and academia to develop and test technologies that reduce risk and improve cost performance for future spacecraft and space transportation systems. In 2000, NASA initiated assembly of the X-37 flight test vehicle. The X-33 and X-34 programs did not perform flight tests as planned in 2000, due to technical problems encountered during development. Both programs have been canceled. Depending on selections, NASA will develop additional 2002 Aero-Space Technology goals based on Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle awards in 2001. In 2002:

  • NASA will perform the rollout and begin test flights of the X-37 vehicle. This vehicle will serve as a platform on which to test and verify advanced technologies in the area of lightweight composite airframes, integrated vehicle health monitoring, and thermal protection systems.

  • The Space Base program will complete working prototypes of over 40 microscaled and low-power electronic spacecraft and sensor components. These components can lead to future science spacecraft that are the functional equivalent or better of current spacecraft but with less than one-tenth the volume and mass.

Human Exploration and Development of Space: Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) programs, for which the budget proposes $7.3 billion, focus on the use of human skills and expertise in space. In 2000, the Space Shuttle flew four successful missions, including the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 3A that replaced failing gyros on the Hubble. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, a joint Department of Defense/ NASA payload to study the earth, successfully mapped over 98 percent of the available terrain. Two flights to the International Space Station delivered equipment and supplies to set the stage for future assembly missions and to prepare for the first Expedition crew. Improvements to the Space Shuttle system achieved an additional 10-percent increase in predicted reliability over the 1999 levels, and completed the first flight of a new upgraded cockpit. Space Shuttle operations continued to perform well and observed an average of six anomalies per flight, achieved 100 payloads, and achieved a 12-month flight preparation cycle. The International Space Station program delivered, as planned, two-thirds of the total U.S. flight hardware to the launch site, and also conducted successful operations throughout the year. However, projected cost overruns have required a major restructuring of the program in 2002, which should control cost growth, while enabling accommodation of contributions from international partners. In 2002:

  • NASA will successfully complete a majority of planned operations schedules and milestones for 2002 for the International Space Station. For example, NASA plans to conduct permanent on-orbit operations with crew support dedicated to assembly, vehicle operations, payload operations, and early research, and conduct the first Space Shuttle flight to the Space Station dedicated to research; and

  • NASA will ensure that Space Shuttle safety, reliability, availability, and cost will improve, by achieving eight or fewer flight anomalies per mission, 100 percent on-orbit mission success for primary payload on-orbit operations, and a 12-month manifest preparation time. NASA will complete the implementation of the Alternate Turboprop to improve the safety of flight operations and continue safety and supportability upgrades to maintain Space Shuttle infrastructure.

Biological and Physical Research: NASA's Biological and Physical Research programs, for which the budget proposes $380 million, focus on basic and applied research to support the safe and effective human exploration of space, as well as the use of the space environment as a laboratory for increasing our understanding of biological, physical, and chemical processes. In 2000, the Biological and Physical Research Enterprise was created as a separate entity from the HEDS Enterprise to provide a greater focus on biological and physical research. The new Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and its predecessor organization, the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, conducted significant commercial research on the May Space Shuttle mission to the Space Sta- era by conducting the first long-dura-tion experiment on the International Space Station. In 2002:

  • OBPR will continue to build a productive scientific community to utilize its space assets, expanding agency support to approxi-mately 1,000 scientific investigations (from 877 reported in 1999); and

  • NASA will collaborate with the National Cancer Institute to develop and test cutting- edge methods and instruments to support molecular-level diagnostics for physiological and chemical processes monitoring.

Management Reform Goals

To fulfill the President's commitment to make Government more market-based, NASA will pursue management reforms to promote innovation, open Government activities to competition, and improve the depth and quality of NASA's R&D expertise. These reforms, described below, will help reduce NASA's operational burden and focus resources on Government-unique R&D at NASA.

  • International Space Station. NASA will undertake reforms and develop a plan to ensure that future Space Station costs will remain within the President's 2002 Budget plan. Key elements of this plan will: restore cost estimating credibility, including an external review to validate cost estimates and requirements and suggest additional options as needed; transfer Space Station program management reporting from the Johnson Space Center in Texas to NASA Headquarters until a new program management plan is developed and approved; and open future Station hard-ware and service procurements to innovation and cost-saving ideas through competition, including launch services and a Non-Government Organization for Space Station research.

  • Space Shuttle Privatization. NASA will aggressively pursue Space Shuttle privatization opportunities that improve the Shuttle's safety and operational efficiency. This reform will include continued implementation of planned and new privatization efforts through the Space Shuttle prime contract and further efforts to safely and effectively transfer civil service positions and responsibilities to the Space Shuttle contractor.

  • Space Launch Opportunities. NASA's Space Launch Initiative provides commercial industry with the opportunity to meet NASA's future launch needs, including human access to space, with new launch vehicles that promise to dramatically reduce cost and improve safety and reli-ability. NASA will undertake management reforms within the Space Launch Initiative, including: ensuring vehicle affordability and competitiveness by limiting requirements to essential needs through commercial services; creating requirements flexibility, where possible, to accommodate innovative industry proposals; validating requirements through external, independent review; implementing a well-integrated risk-reduction investment strategy that makes investments only after requirements and vehicle options are well-understood, to ensure a viable competition by the middle of the decade for initial Station cargo and crew launch services; ensuring no set-aside funds for non-industry vehicles like the Space Shuttle; and achieving affordable, near-term successes in Next Generation Launch Services and Alternative Access to the Space Station and integrating these near-term activities into longer-term planning.

  • Critical Capabilities. U.S. academia and industry provide a rich R&D resource that NASA can tap to strengthen its mission capabilities. NASA will develop an integrated, long-term agency plan that ensures a national capability to support NASA's mission by: identifying NASA's critical capabilities and, through the use of external reviews, determining which capabilities must be retained by NASA and which can be discontinued or led outside the agency; expanding collaboration with industry, universities and other agencies, and outsourcing appropriate activities to fully leverage outside expertise; and pursuing civil service reforms for capabilities that NASA must retain, to ensure recruitment and retention of top science, engineering and management talent at NASA.

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