Moon: July 2019

The Moon's south pole region is home to some of the most extreme environments in the solar system: it's unimaginably cold, massively cratered, and has areas that are either constantly bathed in sunlight or in darkness.

What is the composition of the crust from top to bottom? It is relatively easy to measure the surface, but what lies beneath the surface?

India's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle GSLV MkIII-M1, successfully launched the 3,840 kg Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft into an Earth orbit today (July 22, 2019).

Panorama view of Apollo 12 lunar surface photos with lunar module pilot Alan L. Bean and the TV taken from just inside the rim of Surveyor Crater on the first moonwalk of the mission.

Building a lunar base would be one of the next logical steps in our exploration of the Solar System, but the survival of a future crew depends on access to a reliable source of energy.

As the world celebrates 50 years since the first lunar landing, the team at ESA's astronaut centre is looking to the future of lunar exploration. This includes developing prototypes for rock and soil sampling equipment to be used on the Moon.

The only visual record of the historic Apollo 11 landing is from a 16mm time-lapse (6 frames per second) movie camera mounted in Buzz Aldrin's window (right side of Lunar Module Eagle or LM).